JSS1 English Studies Lesson Note (Second Term) 2024


The lesson note for JSS1 English Studies Second Term is now available for Tutors, parents, guardians and students who have been searching for an accurate and updated 2024 note.


Please note that the Second Term lesson note is curled out from the approved scheme of work for Junior Secondary school. So you can do your verification as well and compare the Second Term lesson note for JSS1 English Studies as seen on the free PDF file made available towards the end of this post.

JSS1 English Studies Lesson Note (Second Term) [year] 1

The JSS1 English Studies lesson note for Second Term is in line with the 2024 JSS1 English Studies scheme of work for the term. This means the JSS1 English Studies lesson note is tailored towards achieving the aim and objective for the subject as mandated by the ministry of education.

JSS1 English Studies Second Term Lesson Note 2024

JSS1 SECOND TERM SCHEME OF WORK FOR ENGLISH STUDIES


WEEK ONE: –   REVISION

WEEK TWO: – VOWEL /U/, ADVERBIALS, LETTER WRITING AND FOLKTALES

WEEK THREE: – VOWEL /U:/, THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE, FORMAL LETTER AND POETRY


WEEK FOUR: – VOWEL /Ʌ/, THE SIMPLE PAST TENSE, THE FEDERAL ROAD SAFETY COMMISSION, TYPES OF POETRY AND DIFFERENCES BETWEEN ORAL AND WRITTEN LITERATURE

WEEK FIVE: – VOWEL /З:/, THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE, NARRATIVE ESSAY AND DRAMA

WEEK SIX: – VOWEL /Ə/, THE PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE AND ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY: ARRANGING IDEAS IN A LOGICAL WAY

WEEK SEVEN: – VOWEL /Þ/ AND /ᴐ:/, MAKING SENTENCE WITH SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE, EXPOSITORY ESSAY AND MYTHS AND LEGENDS

WEEK EIGHT: – VOWELS /E/ AND /Ə/, FUTURE TENSE, ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY: ROAD TRANSPORTATION AND AIR TRANSPORTATION AND THE FEATURES OF MYTHS AND LEGENDS

WEEK NINE: – DIPHTHONGS, MAKING SENTENCES WITH THE SIMPLE PAST TENSE AND GUIDED COMPOSITION: A FESTIVAL IN MY VILLAGE

WEEK 2

SPEECH WORK: Vowel /u/

OBJECTIVE OF THE LESSON:

  • To describe the sound /u/
  • To give examples of words that carry the /u/ sound.

INTRODUCTION:

The English vowel sounds are 20 in number, with 12 being monophthongs, and 8 being diphthongs.

Monophthongs are divided into short vowels, and long vowels and they consist of only a single sound each. However, for diphthongs, each diphthong has two vowels sounds, that are pronounced simultaneously, gliding from one sound to the other sound.

The /u/ sound is a short vowel sound, that is pronounced with the mouth in a round shape. It is often called the close back rounded vowel.

When pronouncing the sound /u/, your mouth is open, the lips are rounded, and the back of your tongue is raised towards the roof of the mouth. It is often called the close back rounded vowel.

Pronounce the following words, with the /u/ sound: put, pull, full, wood, good, etc.

The /u/ sound appears in different words, in form of the following letters:

  1. u- pull, push, rule
  2. oo- book, too
  3. ou- should, would
  4. o- wolf, to

 

SUMMARY:

The /u/ sound is a short vowel sound.

ASSESSMENT:

  • Give ten examples of words that carry the /u/ sound.
  • Use five out of the above examples to make sentences

GRAMMAR: ADVERBIALS (Frequency and Manner)

OBJECTIVE OF THE LESSON:

  • To explain the adverb of frequency, and adverb of manner.
  • To give examples of adverbs of frequency, and adverbs of manner.
  • To use the given examples in sentences

INTRODUCTION:

Adverbs are words used to describe a verb, an adjective, and other adverbs. It is used to tell where, how, and when an action is performed, to give more details about it.

There are various types of Adverbs, which are:

  • Adverb of Time
  • Adverb of Place
  • Adverb of Manner
  • Adverb of Frequency
  • Adverb of Degree

Adverb of Frequency:

An adverb of frequency is used to show how frequent, or the number of times, that an action is carried out. They usually appear before the main verb in a sentence, and they are mostly used to describe verbs.

Examples of Adverbs of Frequency are: Always, Sometimes, Seldom. Every day, Never, Frequently, Rarely, etc.

  1. He alwayswalks home after school.
  2. She neverfights with anyone.
  3. They rarelysee their cousins.
  4. sometimesgo to the zoo, with my parents.
  5. seldomsee my grandparents

Adverb of Manner

An adverb of manner is an adverb that shows the way or the manner with which an action is carried out. An adverb of manner shows how a thing is done. It appears after the main verb, or as the last word in a sentence. Some of them end with “ly”

Examples of Adverbs of Manner Include: Beautifully, Neatly, Hurriedly, Quickly, Happily, Well, etc.

  1. She sings beautifully
  2. He arranged the clothes neatly
  3. They ran inside the bush quickly.
  4. They carried out the project well.
  5. I ran hurriedlyto put off the gas cooker.

SUMMARY:

The adverbs of frequency are used to tell the number of times, or how often an action is carried out. While, adverbs of manner are used to tell the manner, with which an action is carried out.

ASSESSMENT:

  1. Write out ten examples each, of an adverb of frequency, and an adverb of manner
  2. Use five examples each, out of the above-given examples, to make sentences.

COMPOSITION: LETTER WRITING

TOPIC: FORMAL LETTER

OBJECTIVES OF THE LESSON:

  • To explain what letter writing is, and its types.
  • To define formal letter, and list examples of people, it can be written to.
  • List and explain the features of a formal letter
  • Write an example of a formal letter.

INTRODUCTION:

Letter writing has to do with writing a message, to communicate a thing to another person. Letter writing is an important type of writing that should be learnt. There are three types of letters, which are: Formal, Semi-formal and Informal Letters

Formal Letters: Formal letters are letters that are written to important people in society. It is official and formal in nature. It is usually written to people such as; The President, Governors, School Principals, Head Teachers, Teachers, Ministers, etc.

A formal letter is different from an informal letter, in terms of the type of people it is written to, and the structure of the letter.

THE FEATURES OF A FORMAL LETTER

A formal letter should contain the features explained below, as they give the structure when writing it.

  • The Address of the Writer: A formal letter starts with the address of the writer, which is written at the top right corner. It contains the house number, street, town, and state of the writer. And in a situation, whereby the letter is written to someone in another country, the Country of the writer must be stated in the address.
  • Date: The date the letter was written, must appear after the address of the writer. It should be written in a clear format of Day, Month, and Year, or Month, Day and Year.
  • The Name or Position of the Receiver: The next thing to write is the name, or position of the receiver of the letter. In a situation where you don’t know the name of the receiver, you write only their position. For example The Principal, The Governor. This is written on the left side, immediately after the date has been written.
  • The Address of the Receiver: The address of the receiver of the letter is also written. It is usually their official address that is written, in a formal letter, mostly their workplace address.
  • Salutation: This is in the form of “Dear Sir,” or “Dear Ma,”; depending on who you are addressing the letter to. However, if you don’t know the gender of the person, you write “Dear Sir/Ma,”.
  • Title: The title of the letter comes next; this is where you write a short description of why you are writing the letter. For example, “Permission to go home before school closes”.
  • Introduction: In the introduction of a formal letter, you immediately introduce yourself with your name, and state why you are writing the letter. There is no need for pleasantries and greeting. Keep it formal!
  • Body: This is where you explain fully, your reason for writing the letter. It must not be too long. Go straight to the point, and be formal in the words you use.
  • Conclusion: Write a conclusion afterwards, to bring your letter to an end. You can ask the person to give you a reply, if such is needed.
  • Complimentary Close: A complimentary close is given in form of “Yours faithfully,” and a comma is added as written. This is written at the right bottom corner of the letter.
  • Signature: You then input your signature, after the complimentary close.
  • Name of the Writer: You end by writing your name; first name, then your last name.

EXAMPLE OF A FORMAL LETTER

Write a letter to your local government chairman, telling him about the bad road in your street, and how it urgently needs to be repaired, in order to avoid accidents.

5, Austin Street,

Oshodi,

Lagos State.

5th February 2021.

The Local Government Chairman,

Oshodi-Isolo Local Government,

Oshodi, Lagos.

P.O. Box 4556.

Dear Sir,

LETTER TO APPEAL FOR THE REPAIR OF THE ROAD AT AUSTIN STREET IN OSHODI

Good day, sir. My name is Cynthia Daniels. I live at No 5, Austin street in Oshodi, which happens to be an area under the local government you head. I am writing this letter to inform you of the urgent need to repair the road in the above-named street, to avoid accidents, and other damages to lives, and properties.

The road leading into the street is bad, and commuters find it very difficult to drive in every day. Also, as a result of the bad road, vehicles are usually involved in one form of accident or the other, as a big pothole at the beginning of the street, disturbs their navigation.

I would really be glad, if this letter is well responded to, and action is taken immediately, to repair the road. Thank you.

Yours faithfully,

Signature

Cynthia Daniels.

LITERATURE-IN-ENGLISH: FOLKTALES

OBJECTIVES:

  • To explain folktales
  • To know the features of African folktales

INTRODUCTION:

Folktales are old stories that are passed down from one generation to another, through storytelling.

Folktales (or folk tales) are stories passed down through generations, mainly by telling. Different kinds of folktales include fairy tales (or fairytale)Folktales are stories that grew out of the lives and imaginations of the people or folk. They have always been children’s favourite type of folk literature

Characteristics of Folktales

  • Settings: Most folktale settings remove the tale from the real world, taking us to a time and place where animals talk, witches and wizards roam, and magic spells are commonplace. The settings are usually unimportant and described and referred to in vague terms.
  • Themes: The themes in folk literature are usually quite simple, but serious and powerful Folktale themes espouse the virtues of compassion, generosity, and humility over the vices of greed, selfishness, and excessive pride.
  • Style: The style of language is economical, with a minimal amount of description and a heavy reliance on formulaic patterns, e.g., conventional openings and closings. Some folktales have a powerful visual image.

CONCLUSION:

Folktales can be of different forms: legends, myths, fairy tales, etc. and most importantly, they are used to teach morals

ASSESSMENT:

Read a folktale story in your school textbook, and bring out the moral lessons in it.

  1. What is a folktale?
  2. List and explain the characteristics of a folklore.
  3. From the comprehension passage above, answer the following questions-

 

 

WEEK 3

SPEECH WORK: VOWEL /u:/ SOUND

OBJECTIVE OF THE LESSON:

  • To describe the vowel sound /u:/
  • To give examples of words that carry the sound /u:/

INTRODUCTION:

The vowel sound /u:/ is the long form of the short vowel /u/

The /u:/ sound is the long form of the /u/ sound. It is easily differentiated from the /u/ sound with the use of “:”, and it is also voiced, like other vowel sounds.

When the long /u:/ sound is produced, the mouth is open, the lips rounded, and the back of the tongue is raised towards the roof of the mouth. However, it is higher and pronounced longer than the short /u/ sound.

Pronounce the following examples of words, with the /u:/ sound: school, group, tool, rue, etc.

The /u:/ sound appears in different words, in form of the following letters:

  1. oo- hoot, mood, loot, tool
  2. ou- soup, group,
  3. u- rude, flu
  4. ue- rue, due, true
  5. ew- screw, brew, crew, dew

SUMMARY:

The /u:/ sound is a vowel sound, and the mouth is put in a round shape when pronouncing it.

ASSESSMENT:

  • Give ten examples of words that carry the /u:/ sound.
  • Use five words out of the examples above, to make five sentences.
  • In a tabular form, classify the following words, in terms of the sounds that appear in them, whether /u/ or /u:/

Sun, amuse, beauty, plus, flu, hut, jump, ewe, group, hew, rug, up, fluid.

 

GRAMMAR: THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE

OBJECTIVE OF THE LESSON:

  • To define simple present tense
  • Give examples of verbs in the simple present tense form.

INTRODUCTION:

Tenses refer to the time that an action takes place. It is used to show whether an action just took place, is taking place or will take place.

There are three types of tenses, which are: Present Tense, Past Tense and Future Tense.

The Simple Present tense is the tense used to show an action, that takes place habitually, or regularly. It is also used to express a universal truth or a well-known fact.

Examples are: buy, go, sweep, love, beat, dance, walk, eat, sleep, etc.

The Simple Present Tense takes either the singular or plural form. The singular form of verbs in the simple present tense take “s” or “es”, at the end. And it is only used with the third person singular pronouns: He, She. It. While, other pronouns, such as: I, We, They, You. take the plural form, which has no “s” or “es”,

Examples: 

  1. She sleepsearly every day.
  2. Her mother cooksrice on Sundays.
  3. He buyspetrol from the filling station behind the house.
  4. They danceat parties.
  5. God loves

SUMMARY:

The Simple Present Tense shows an action that takes place regularly, and it could be in either singular or plural form.

ASSESSMENT:

  1. Write out the following words in their simple present tense form, and make sentences with them:

Flew, drank, fried, love, helped, sang, put, rose.

 

 

COMPOSITION: WRITE A LETTER TO THE SCHOOL AUTHORITY

                                                                                                                        7, Jubril Street,

Ikeja,

Lagos State.

29th January 2021

The Principal,

Petros Group of Schools,

Oregun Ikeja,

Lagos State.

P.O. Box 3489

Dear Ma,

LETTER TO SEEK PERMISSION TO START A RED CROSS CLUB IN THE SCHOOL

Good day, ma. My name is David Festus, and I am a JSS 1 student of Petros Group of Schools. I am writing this letter, to seek your permission to start a Red cross club in the school, to serve as a means of helping students learn about health, and other important things.

The red cross society is one that caters to the health needs of people in the society. They teach their members how to prevent accidents, help people with health challenges, make use of first aid, etc. If such a club is established in our school, it would help students know how to do important things, as it concerns their health, and help other people in need too.

I would be really glad, if my letter is well responded to, and my suggestion accepted. Thank you, ma.

Yours faithfully,

Signature

David Festus.

 

LITERATURE-IN- ENGLISH: INTRODUCTION TO POETRY

OBJECTIVE:

  • To define what poetry is
  • To state and explain the features of poetry

INTRODUCTION:

Literature is the imitation of life. It is like a mirror of the society, that tells of the happenings in our society, and how it affects us as people living in the society.

Literature is divided into three genres, namely:

  • Prose
  • Poetry
  • Drama

Poetry is one of the genres of literature that is written in stanzas and verses. It is the use of words, to get certain emotions and feelings, in people. It makes use of elements such as rhyme, rhythm, symbolism, and other literary elements, in order to get a certain reaction from readers.

It simply has to do with writing a poem.

FEATURES OF POETRY

Poetry as a genre of literature has some features that make it unique, as an aspect of literature. Some of these features are as follows:

  1. Imagery: Imagery has to do with using words to paint pictures in the mind of a reader, and it is a very important aspect of poetry. The poet makes use of words in a way, that the readers can imagine what he wrote about.
  2. Rhyme: This is another important feature of poetry, that has to do with the use of words with similar sounds, to end each line of a poem, in order to make it sound like music.
  3. Figurative language: Poetry also makes use of figures of speech, which makes it interesting. It also makes the reader think, or ponder on the message being passed across, by the writer.

SUMMARY:

Poetry is an aspect of literature, that is used to elicit emotions, and feelings in readers. It is a unique aspect of literature, that is in form of stanzas and verses.

ASSESSMENT:

  1. Write a poem of eight lines on the title: Life is Beautiful

 

WEEK 4

SPEECH WORK: VOWEL /ʌ\ SOUND

OBJECTIVE:

  • To describe the sound /ʌ\
  • To give examples of words, that have the sound /ʌ\

INTRODUCTION:

The /ʌ\ sound is one of the short vowel sounds, and it is voiced.

The sound /ʌ\ is a short vowel sound, that is produced with the middle of the tongue raised. It is a central vowel, and it is voiced.

Pronounce the following words with the sound /ʌ: Sun, come, rough, does, flood.

The /ʌ/ sound appears in different words, in form of the following letters:

  1. u- but, rut, dump
  2. o- son, dozen,
  3. ou- cousin, country
  4. oo- flood, blood

SUMMARY:

The /ʌ\ sound is produced with the mouth, in a neutral position.

ASSESSMENT

  • Write out ten words that carry the /ʌ\ sound.
  • Use five out of the ten words, to make five sentences each.

 

GRAMMAR: THE SIMPLE PAST TENSE

OBJECTIVES:

  • Define the Simple past tense
  • Give examples of words in the simple past tense form
  • Use the above examples in sentences

INTRODUCTION:

Tenses refer to the time that an action takes place. It is used to show whether an action just took place, is taking place or will take place.

There are three types of tenses, which are: Present Tense, Past Tense and Future Tense.

The Simple past tense is used to show an action that just took place, and is no longer happening at the present moment. It is used to show an already completed action.

Examples are: Slept, bought, fought, ran, cooked, worked, swept, danced, etc.

The Simple present tense remains the same, whether when used with a plural or singular subject. And the time of the action is sometimes indicated with the use of words, such as yesterday, this morning, a fortnight ago, last night, etc.

Examples:

  1. sleptlast night.
  2. She boughtthe car last year.
  3. They dancedat the wedding party.
  4. She workedat the Bakery last weekend.
  5. The tout foughtwith the bus driver.

SUMMARY:

The Simple past tense is used to show a past action, and it is sometimes, shown with the addition of “-ed” to words.

ASSESSMENT:

  • Write the following words in their simple past tense form

Write, rise, dig, clean, watch, flog, walk, go, come, wash

  • Use the above words, after changing them to their simple past tense form, to make sentences

COMPOSITION: THE FEDERAL ROAD SAFETY COMMISSION

The Federal Road Safety Commission (FRSC) is the government agency, responsible for making the highway safe for road users.

They assess the state of vehicles, to know if they are roadworthy, checking whether they do not emit fumes, and in good working condition. The Federal Road Safety Commission also recommends infrastructures to be put in place, to eliminate accidents, traffic and other road mishaps, to make the highway conducive for motorists, and road users.

The Federal Road Safety Commission is saddled with some responsibilities, and some of them shall be discussed below.

To begin with, they are in charge of educating road users on how to make use of the highways to prevent or minimize road crashes.

Also, they are responsible for the designing and production of vehicle plate numbers.

In addition, they also are to give prompt attention and care to victims of road crashes.

They also help to minimize crashes on the highway, as well as enforce speed limits for drivers, to ensure safety.

The Federal Road Safety Commission is an important government agency, and an important aspect of society, to ensure safety for road users. They should be obeyed; however, they are not to infringe on a person’s rights, in the course of discharging their duties.

LITERATURE-IN-ENGLISH: TYPES OF POETRY

OBJECTIVE:

  • To list the different types of poetry
  • To explain the different types of poetry

INTRODUCTION:

Poetry is one of the genres of literature that uses stanzas and verses, in its presentation. It is a unique aspect of literature that elicits emotions in the audience, with the use of emotional words.

There are different types of poetry, and while some are defined by their content, some are defined by the number of lines that they contain. Some of them are listed below:

  • Couplet
  • Quatrain
  • Sonnet
  • Blank Verse
  • Pastoral Poem
  • Limerick
  • Lyric
  • Epic
  1. Couplet: This is a two-line poem, that gives a complete message, or expresses a complete thought, and have the same meter. It can exist within a longer poem or stand on its own.
  2. Quatrain: A quatrain is a poem made up of four lines.
  3. Sonnet: A sonnet is a fourteen-line poem, with a fixed rhyme scheme. It has 3 quatrains and 1 couplet.
  4. Blank Verse: A blank verse is a poem with a fixed meter, but without a rhyme pattern.
  5. Pastoral Poem: A pastoral poem is a poem that speaks about life in a rural area. It is centred on the lives of the shepherd, and rural folks. It is usually simple, and it is an old type of poem.
  6. Limerick: A limerick is a humorous and playful poem, that is made up of 5 lines.
  7. Lyric: A lyric is a kind of poem that has the quality and form of a song. It consists of verses and choruses. A lyric is written by a lyricist.
  8. Epic: An epic poem is a long poem, that narrates the story of great men and women. It is narrative in nature.

SUMMARY:

The different types of poetry, carry different forms and are used to pass across different messages.

ASSESSMENT:

  1. Mention five types of poetry
  2. Explain the above-mentioned types of poetry
  3. Write a poem of fourteen lines with the title: Hard work.

LITERATURE-IN-ENGLISH: DIFFERENTIATE BETWEEN ORAL AND WRITTEN POETRY

OBJECTIVE:

  • To explain what oral poetry is
  • To explain what written poetry is
  • To differentiate between oral literature and written literature.

INTRODUCTION:

Poetry is either in a written form or an oral form. The oral form of poetry is the oldest before the written form came into existence. Differentiation would be made between these two forms of poetry.

Oral Poetry: Oral Poetry is a form of poetry that is spoken or sung. It is usually performed live, via recitation, or as a song. It also comes in the form of Spoken word, which is an oral poetic performance, that involves recitation, and wordplay.

Examples include Epic, ballad, panegyric odes, lyric, etc.

Written Poetry: This is the form of poetry that is expressed in a written form. It is the conventional or modern way of presenting poems. Most oral poems have been transcribed into written poetry.

Examples include Sonnet, Blank verse, etc.

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ORAL POETRY AND WRITTEN POETRY

  1. Oral poetry is the oldest form of poetry, while written poetry is the modern form and common way of poem presentation
  2. Oral Poetry is sung with the mouth, while written poetry is in form of a letter of the alphabets, as written in books, on walls, or any other surface.
  3. Oral poetry is performed, with the poet paying attention to rhyme and sounds, to make the rendition sound like music, on the other hand, Written Poetry is not written to be performed.
  4. Oral poetry focuses more on the choice of words and rhythm of the poem, while written poetry is more concerned with the structure and arrangement of the poem.

SUMMARY:

Even though different in some ways, oral poetry and written poetry are similar in that they are both a form of poetry.

ASSESSMENT:

  1. What is the difference between oral poetry and written poetry?
  2. Which of these two forms of poetry involves the spoken word?

 

WEEK 5

SPEECH WORK: VOWEL /3:/ SOUND

OBJECTIVE:

  • To describe the sound /3:/
  • To give examples of words that carry the /3:/ sound

INTRODUCTION:

The /3:/ sound is a long vowel sound, and its short form is the /e/ sound.

The /3:/ sound is a long vowel sound, and when it is pronounced, the middle of the tongue is raised, and air passes through the mouth. It is a voiced sound, like every other vowel sound.

Pronounce the following words with the /3:/ sound: herd, gird, earn, earlier, urn, colonel.

The /3:/ sound appears in different words, in form of the following letters:

  1. er- herd, term, terp
  2. ear- earn, earnest
  3. ir- sir, bird, firm
  4. ur- turn, burn,
  5. our- journey, courtesy

SUMMARY:

The /3:/ sound is a long vowel sound, and it is voiced.

ASSESSMENT:

  • Write out ten words that carry the /3:/ sound.
  • Use five out of the ten words, to make five sentences each.

GRAMMAR: THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE

OBJECTIVE:

  • To explain the present continuous tense
  • To give examples of words in the present continuous tense
  • To use the above examples in sentences

INTRODUCTION:

Tense is used to show the time of an action. It is divided into Present Tense, Past Tense, and Future Tense.

The Present Continuous Tense is an aspect of tense that shows an action that is currently taking place in the present. It is used to express an action that is still in progress. It is also known as Present Progressive Tense.

It is indicated with the addition of -ing, to the end of words, to show continuity or progression. And it is the same when used for either a singular subject or plural subject. Also, for the present continuous tense, an auxiliary verb is added before the main verb, to reflect present continuity. Examples of these auxiliary verbs are: is, are, am.

The following are examples of words in their present continuous tense form: Singing, dancing, running, writing, washing, swimming, eating.

Examples:

  1. am eating
  2. She is singingin the kitchen.
  3. He is writinga poem.
  4. They are washingthe car.
  5. The children are runningin the backyard.

SUMMARY:

The Present Continuous Tense is used for progressive actions, still taking place in the present.

ASSESSMENT:

  • Write the following words in their Present continuous tense form:

Throw, leave, sit, yell, walk, work, stand, litter, belch, carry

  • Use the above words, after changing them to their present continuous tense form, to make sentences.

 

 

COMPOSITION: NARRATIVE ESSAY: THE MOST MEMORABLE DAY OF MY LIFE

How can I ever forget this day, I have been looking forward to it for a long time. All my life, I have been living in Lagos state with my parents, and I have never been to our hometown in Ibadan. My classmates spoke about their visits to their home towns, during holidays, but I never had a story to tell in that regard, as I had never been there.

During the last long break from school, my dad returned home from work and announced that we were going to Ibadan, to visit my grandparents for a weekend. My joy knew no bounds! I was happy, and looked forward to the date, as I counted down.

The D-day came, and we left on Saturday morning. My mum already packed our stuff, for the day and what we would be wearing to church the next day, which happened to be a Sunday. She also packed fruits, foodstuff, and lots of goodies for my grandparents, and also for the children in their house. We left home as early as 7 am that morning, being a 2-hour journey, we got to Ibadan about some minutes past 9 am.

Immediately, my dad parked his car, and we got down, some children ran out of the house and came to hug him and my mum. I later got to know that they were my cousins, and were staying with my grandparents. We entered the house and met my grandparents in the living room discussing. Immediately we entered, my dad and I prostrated, while my mum knelt to greet them. My grandmother stood up at once and drew me up, then placed me on her laps, as she beamed in delight on seeing me.

One of my aunts who lived there, came out to greet us and served us food. Then one of my older cousins took me out to explore the town. We visited a lot of fun places in Ibadan, places like Skye, where we ate Amala. We also went to Ventura, to see a movie and other interesting places. Finally, we visited the prestigious University of Ibadan, where my dad’s brother lectured. He was very happy to see me, and he took me, and my cousin to the University’s Zoo for sightseeing.

At this time, it was already getting late, and we had to return home. We got home tired and exhausted, but I was very happy, as I had a good time all day. The next day was a Sunday, and we attended my Grandparent’s church, which was an Anglican Church. After service, we came home. and my grandparents gave me lots of goodies to take home.

We had to return home that afternoon, because of my parents’ jobs, and also because I had to attend a holiday coaching class, which was starting the next day. They hugged us, and waved us goodbye, as my dad drove off to Lagos. It was a short visit, but it would forever remain the most memorable day of my life.

LITERATURE-IN-ENGLISH: DRAMA

OBJECTIVE:

  • To explain what drama is
  • To list and explain the types of drama
  • To list and explain the features of drama

INTRODUCTION:

Drama is another genre of literature, that is written in acts and scenes.

Drama has to do with a story that depicts the life of a group of people, which is acted out, by some group of people, known as actors and actresses, to an audience for the sake of entertainment.

Drama comes in the form of plays when it is presented on a live stage.

TYPES OF DRAMA

There are different types of drama, and some of them are listed and explained below:

  • Comedy
  • Tragedy
  • Tragicomedy
  • Farce
  • Melodrama
  • Comedy: This is a type of drama that is done to make the audience laugh. It is usually amusing and funny, as it explores funny situations that make the audience laugh. Example: The Lion and the Jewel, by Wole Soyinka.
  • Tragedy: This is a type of drama that deals with sad events, and has a serious storyline. In tragedy, the main character usually has a weakness, that causes his or her downfall in the drama. It always has a sad ending. Example: The gods are not to blame by Ola Rotimi.
  • Tragicomedy: This type of drama combines the features of comedy and tragedy. It has a mixture of both good, and bad events. Example: Oliver Twist by Charles Dickens
  • Farce: This is an exaggerated form of drama that involves the use of exaggerated and ridiculous situations, in order to make the audience laugh.
  • Melodrama: A melodrama is an exaggerated type of drama that is made to appeal to the emotions of the audience. It is done in such a way as to stir up the senses, and feelings of the audience.

FEATURES OF DRAMA

The following are features of drama, which makes it stand out from other genres of literature

  • Costume
  • Audience
  • Plot
  • Character
  • Dialogue
  • Costume: A costume has to do with a piece of clothing that a character in a drama wears, to project the kind of role he is playing. For a character in a play to bring a kind of role alive, he has to wear a costume to help him own that role.

For example, an actor playing the role of a medical doctor has to wear a lab coat to show that he is a doctor. In that situation, the lab coat there is a kind of costume.

  • Audience: This refers to a group of people who watch a play, to be entertained by it. they are like the spectators in a football game, but in this instance, they are watching a play or drama.
  • Plot: A plot has to do with the chronological arrangements of events in a play. It deals with how events unfold one after the other, in order to tell a story.
  • Character: A character has to do with the role played by an actor or an actress in a play. It deals with an actor or actress taking on the characteristics of another person, as the role is required in the drama.
  • Dialogue: This has to do with a conversation going on between two or more people. A dialogue is a predominant feature in drama, as at one point or the other, there is usually a discussion between people in a drama work. The opposite of dialogue is a monologue, which has to do with one person.

SUMMARY:

Drama is a genre of literature that is different from other genres, with unique features like character, costumes, etc. It also makes use of Acts and Scenes in its presentation.

ASSESSMENT:

  • Give five examples of drama written by Nigerian writers
  • Mention two features of drama that differentiate it from other genres of literature.

 

WEEK 6

SPEECH WORK: VOWEL SOUND /Ə/

OBJECTIVE:

  • To describe the vowel sound /Ə/
  • To give examples of words with the sound /Ə/

INTRODUCTION:

The /Ə. Sound is the weakest vowel sound in the English language, and it occurs only in unstressed syllables.

The sound /Ə/ is a common vowel sound, that occurs in words like a, an, the. It is used in the weak form of words, and it is called the schwa sound.

During pronunciation, the organs of speech; the mouth, tongue and jaw should be in a relaxed position.  It is pronounced like when saying “uh”.

Pronounce the following words with the /Ə/ sound: data, again, father, sofa, etc.

The /Ə/ sound appears in different words, in form of the following letters:

  • a- abandon, about, across
  • e- celebrate, camera, several, father
  • i- duplicate, president, family
  • o- combine, proposal, cologne

SUMMARY:

The /Ə/ sound gets omitted sometimes, during the pronunciation of words, in which it occurs, because of its weak nature.

ASSESSMENT:

  • List ten words with the /Ə/ sound
  • Make five sentences with five out of the ten words, listed above.

 

GRAMMAR: THE PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE

OBJECTIVE:

  • To explain what the past continuous tense is
  • To give examples of words in the past continuous tense
  • To use the examples given above in sentences

INTRODUCTION:

The Past Continuous tense is used to show an action that was taking place in the past, for an extended period of time.

The past continuous tense is used to show an action that was happening in the past for a period of time. It shows continuity in the past. When it appears in a sentence, it has the following auxiliary verbs preceding the main verb: was, were.

The main verbs have -ing, at the end to show continuity, while the auxiliary verbs used, is to show that it is in the past tense.

The following words are in the past continuous tense form: working, typing, teaching, reading, praying, sleeping, etc.

Examples:

  • was sleepingin the bedroom
  • She was workingat the bank last year
  • They were typingthe exam questions yesterday.
  • The pastors were prayinglast night.

SUMMARY:

The Past Continuous tense is used with the auxiliary verbs: was and were, and it shows a progressive action, that occurred in the past.

ASSESSMENT:

  • Write out ten words in the past continuous tense form.
  • Use five out of the ten examples given above to make sentences.

COMPOSITION: ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY

OBJECTIVES:

  • To learn what an argumentative essay is
  • To learn about the structure and how to arrange ideas sequentially, in an argumentative essay.

INTRODUCTION:

The argumentative essay is a type of essay that has to do with supporting a particular point of view and trying to persuade other people to also agree with you.

An argumentative essay is a kind of persuasive essay where one tries to convince the other, to see things from their own point of view, or perspective. It is a kind of essay that is aimed at sharing one’s thoughtss about a thing, in order to convince another person, to agree with them.

It is usually in the form of debates. It has a structure, and it shall be briefly explained below:

  • Greetings: An argumentative essay is started with a formal salutation, which is addressed to the chairman, panel of judges, timekeeper and other debaters.
  • Introduction: Then, an introduction of oneself follows, followed by the topic of the discussion, and the side supported by the speaker. The speaker then goes further to define important terms in the topic and other important information, to set the tone for the discussion.
  • Body: This contains the points used to explain the reason for supporting or opposing a motion. This is the main part of the essay, where you give tangible points to convince your audience to see things from your point of view.
  • Conclusion: You then conclude, and may reiterate the points already mentioned in the body of the essay, for the sake of emphasis.

SUMMARY:

In an argumentative essay, one can either support or oppose a motion, depending on the sides he/she wants to take. Also, one must have strong reasonable points to be able to convince others to agree with their view.

ASSESSMENT:

  • From the structure given here, write an argumentative essay on the topic “Technology has done more harm than good”. Use strong and logical points to either support or oppose the motion.

Note: There is an example of an argumentative essay in the Week 8 lesson, check it out here

 

WEEK 7

SPEECH WORK: INTRODUCTION TO VOWEL CONTRASTING: /ƥ/ AND /Ͻ:/

OBJECTIVE:

  • To learn about the sounds /ƥ/ and /Ͻ:/
  • To give examples of words that occur in
  • To contrast the vowels from each other

INTRODUCTION:

The sound /ƥ/ is a short vowel sound, and its long-form is the sound /Ͻ:/. They are both round vowel sounds, however, they differ in the length of pronunciation, and in words in which they occur.

The short vowel sound /ƥ/ is a voiced sound. During pronunciation, the mouth is open, the lips are rounded, and the front part of the tongue is lowered, while the back part is raised to the roof of the mouth.

Pronounce the following words with the /ƥ/ sound: hot, lost, rot, wander, etc.

The /ƥ/ sound appears in different words, in form of the following letters:

  • o- bot, lot, dot
  • a- want, watch, wander
  • ua- quality, quantity, qualification

The sound /Ͻ:/ is a long vowel sound. During pronunciation, the mouth is open, and the lips are in an oval shape. The back of the tongue is raised higher to the roof of the mouth, than when pronouncing the sound /ƥ/, and the front part of the tongue is lowered.

It is a voiced sound, and during pronunciation, air passes through the mouth.

Pronounce the following words with the /Ͻ:/ sound: short, sort, fraud, talk, etc.

The /Ͻ:/ sound appears in different words, in form of the following letters:

  • or- lord, cord, ford, sword
  • oa- broad, boar, board
  • a- tall, ball, call
  • aw- law, saw, jaw, faw

CONTRASTING THE VOWEL SOUNDS /ƥ/ AND /Ͻ:/

The vowel sound /ƥ/ is shorter than the vowel sound /Ͻ:/ in the length of pronunciation. While /Ͻ:/ sound is pronounced longer, /ƥ/ is shorter.

Also, when pronouncing the sound /ƥ/, the lips are rounded, whereas, when pronouncing /Ͻ:/, the lips take an oval shape.

The /ƥ/ and /Ͻ:/ sounds can also be contrasted in terms of the words that they occur in, as shown in the examples given above.

SUMMARY:

The difference between sounds /ƥ/ and /Ͻ:/ can be seen as highlighted above. And even though they are often mistaken for each other, especially in the process of pronunciation, with constant practice, they can be easily differentiated.

ASSESSMENT:

  • Write ten words each, that have the sounds /ƥ/ and /Ͻ:/ occurring in them.
  • Use the five words, each to make sentences.
  • In a tabular form, classify the following words, in terms of the sounds that appear in them, whether /ƥ/ or /Ͻ:/

Rot, Lord, Bored, Bot, Cord, Caw

CONTRASTING VOWEL SOUNDS /æ/ AND /a:/

OBJECTIVE:

  • To learn about the sounds /æ/ and /a:/
  • To give examples of words that occur in
  • To contrast the vowels from each other

INTRODUCTION:

The sound /æ/ is a short vowel sound, and its long-form is the sound /a:/.

The short vowel sound /æ/ is a voiced sound. During pronunciation, the front part of the tongue is pushed forward but lowered in the mouth, and the lips are spread.

Pronounce the following words with the /æ/ sound: apple, hat, cat, fat

The /æ/ sound appears in different words, in form of the following letter:

  • a- pat, map, tack, ma
  • ac- sack, pack, lack

The sound /a:/ is a long vowel sound. During pronunciation, the mouth is open, the lips is in an oval shape, and the front part of the tongue is lowered. It is a voiced sound, and during pronunciation, air passes through the mouth.

Pronounce the following words with the /a:/ sound: park, mark, bath, etc

The /a:/ sound appears in different words, in form of the following letters:

  • a- bath, pass,
  • ar- lark, dark, bark
  • ea- heart

CONTRASTING THE VOWEL SOUNDS /æ/ AND /a:/

The vowel sound /æ/ is shorter than the vowel sound /a:/ in the length of pronunciation. While /a:/ sound is pronounced longer, /æ/ is shorter.

Also, when pronouncing the sound /æ/, the lips are spread, whereas, when pronouncing /a:/, the lips take an oval shape.

The /æ/ and /a:/ sounds can also be contrasted in terms of the words that they occur in, as shown in the examples given above.

SUMMARY:

The difference between sounds /æ/ and /a:/ can be seen as highlighted above. And even though they are often mistaken for each other, especially in the process of pronunciation, with constant practice, they can be easily differentiated.

ASSESSMENT:

  • Write ten words each, that have the sounds /æ/ and /a:/ occurring in them.

Rattle, Far, Park, Sat, Brag, Bat, Bar

  • Use the five words, each to make sentences.
  • In a tabular form, classify the following words, in terms of the sounds that appear in them, whether /æ/ or /a:/

GRAMMAR: MAKING SENTENCES WITH THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE

OBJECTIVES:

  • To identify words in the simple present tense form
  • To make sentences with these words

INTRODUCTION:

The simple present tense is used to show actions that happen regularly, or habitually. It is also used when expressing a well-known fact or truth.

The following words are in the simple present tense. While some are plural, others are singular. The singular form has “s” or “es”, added to the end of the word, and they are only used with the third person singular pronouns: He, She. It. While, other pronouns, such as I, We, They, You. take the plural form.

Plural: Go, Sleep, Rise, Eat, Wash, Clean, Walk

Singular: Goes, Sleeps. Rises, Eats, Washes, Cleans, Walks

Example:

  1. She walksto school every day.
  2. walkto school every day.
  3. He goesto the mall, every weekend.
  4. They goto the mall, every weekend.
  5. The sun risesat dawn.

SUMMARY:

The Simple present tense is used to show a habitual action, and sentences have been made with them, as seen above.

ASSESSMENT:

  • Make sentences with the following words in their simple present tense

Love, run, work, match, rest, follow, greet, sing, see, look

 

COMPOSITION: EXPOSITORY ESSAY

OBJECTIVES:

  • To learn what an expository essay is
  • To learn the structure of an expository essay
  • To give an example of an expository essay on the topic “HIV/AIDS”.

INTRODUCTION:

An expository essay is a type of essay, that has to do with the presentation of facts, and truths about a given topic, without including one’s opinion.

An expository essay is a type of essay that requires writing about a topic, by giving facts that can be proven, researching to bring about proven truths about the topic, in order to give a clear presentation of the subject matter.

In writing an expository essay, the opinion of the writer is not allowed, as the essay must be as objective as possible.

An expository essay is written in the following format/structure:

  • Topic
  • Introduction
  • Body
  • Conclusion

 

 HIV/AIDS

HIV/AIDS fully known as Human Immune deficiency Virus/ Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome is a critical disease that weakens the human immune system. Since its discovery, about 42 million people have died from HIV/AIDS, and about 38 million people are currently living with HIV/AIDS, as of 2019.

HIV/AIDS is transmitted from one person to the other, through blood, sexual intercourse, and from mother to child.

HIV/AIDS can be transmitted through the use of sharp objects, used during the transfusion of the blood of an infected person, or already infected by their blood, during use. This is why it is advised that one does not use sharp objects, previously used by another person.

Also, it can be transmitted through unprotected sex, from an infected person to a healthy person.

And finally, an infected pregnant woman can transmit the virus to her unborn baby, while in the womb.

Some of the symptoms of HIV/AIDS are Weight loss, Regular Infection, persistent cough, fever, rash, mouth and skin problem, chronic diarrhoea, etc.

Currently, there is no cure for HIV/AIDS, but infected people are placed on drugs, to help strengthen their immune system, and help them live longer, even with the virus.

In conclusion, contracting HIV/AIDS is not the end of life, so, one need not be scared if infected. Also, it is better to detect on time, to know one’s status, than to live in ignorance, and just die.

Also, one should try as much as possible to avoid sharing sharp objects, and also unprotected sex.

SUMMARY:

An expository essay on the topic above gives details about what HIV/AIDS is, how it can be transmitted, how it can be avoided and real statistics about it.

ASSESSMENT:

  • Write an expository essay on the topic “Covid-19 and its effects”

 

 

LITERATURE-IN-ENGLISH: COMPARING MYTHS AND LEGENDS

OBJECTIVES:

  • To know what myths are
  • To know what legends are
  • To contrast between myths and legends

INTRODUCTION:

Myth is a kind of folktale story that talks about events concerning supernatural beings and creatures. Myths are usually made up, just to pass across a message.

On the other hand, legends are stories that are told about the historical deeds of great men and women in the past.

Literature: Myths and Legends

A myth is a traditional story, which may describe the origins of the world and/or of a people. A myth is an attempt to explain mysteries, supernatural events, and cultural traditions. Sometimes sacred in nature, a myth can involve gods or other creatures. And, a myth represents reality in dramatic ways. Examples of Greek myth: Hercules, Hades, Achilles.

A myth is a traditional, typically ancient story dealing with supernatural beings, ancestors, or heroes that serves as a fundamental type in the worldview of a people. The purpose of myths is to account for the origins of something, explain aspects of the natural world, or delineate the psychology, customs, or ideals of society.

A myth is a story based on tradition or legend, which has a deep symbolic meaning. A myth ‘conveys a truth’ to those who tell it and hear it, rather than necessarily recording a true event. Although some myths can be accounts of actual events, they have become transformed by symbolic meaning or shifted in time or place. Myths are often used to explain universal and local beginnings and involve supernatural beings. The great power of the meaning of these stories, to the culture in which they developed, is a major reason why they survive as long as they do – sometimes for thousands of years.

A legend is a traditional tale handed down from earlier times and believed to have a historical basis. A legend is a story purported to be historical in nature, but without substantiation. Examples are King Arthur,  Robin Hood. Where evidence of the existence of actual historical figures exists, figures like King Richard are legends due in large part to the many stories that have been created about them.

Legend also refers to anything that inspires a body of stories, or anything of lasting importance or fame. The story is handed down from earlier times but will continue to evolve with time.

A legend is a semi-true story, which has been passed on from person to person and has important meaning or symbolism for the culture in which it originates. A legend usually includes an element of truth, or is based on historic facts, but with ‘mythical qualities. Legends usually involve heroic characters or fantastic places and often encompass the spiritual beliefs of the culture in which they originate.

Comparison between Legend and Myth

 LegendMyth
Evidence that events occurred / people existed?Yes, but evidence may be insubstantial.No
When and where did it happen?Typically in more recent historical past. Usually from a specific culture.Usually the ancient past from a specific culture.
Is it fact or fiction?Facts are distorted or exaggerated. Some fiction.No evidence to prove it as fact. Fictional stories explaining how “the world was created” or some type of natural situation that occurred on Earth.
Who are they about?Notable people from history.Gods, supernatural realm.
What are they about?Often about heroic deeds, overcoming obstacles, but may also be about evildoing.The traditional narrative that explains natural phenomena through symbolism and metaphor — often involves the gods of ancient cultures.

ASSESSMENT:

What is the major difference between a legend and a myth?

Have you ever read a legend or myth? What lessons did you derive from it?

 

 

WEEK 8

OVERVIEW:

  • Speech Work
  • Grammar
  • Composition
  • Literature-in-English

 

 

SPEECH SOUND: CONTRASTING VOWEL /e/ AND /Ə/

OBJECTIVE:

  • To learn about the vowel sound /e/
  • To learn about the vowel sound /Ə/
  • To contrast vowel /e/ and /Ə/, with examples

INTRODUCTION:

The /e/ and the /Ə/ sound are both short vowel sounds, and they have some differences, which shall be explained below.

 

The /e/ sound is a close-mid front rounded vowel. When it is pronounced, it sounds like when you say “eh”.

During pronunciation, the tip of the tongue is moved to the front part of the mouth, then the front part of the tongue is slightly raised towards the hard palate, and the lips are partially spread.

Pronounce the following words with the /e/ sound: bed, gel, wet, led

The /e/ sound appears in different words, in form of the following letters:

  • e- pet, bend, when, smell
  • ea- head, dead
  • a- any, many

 

The /Ə/ Sound is the weakest vowel sound in English language, and it occurs only in an unstressed syllable. It is used in the weak form of words, and it is called the schwa sound.

During pronunciation, the organs of speech; the mouth, tongue and jaw should be in a relaxed position.  It is pronounced like when saying “uh”.

Pronounce the following words with the /Ə/ sound: abandon, president, father

The /Ə/ sound appears in different words, in form of the following letters:

  • a- about, across
  • e- celebrate, camera,
  • i- duplicate, family

 

CONTRAST BETWEEN VOWEL SOUND /e/ AND /Ə/

The sound /e/ and the sound /Ə/ are both short vowel sounds. While the /e/ sound has its long-form as /3:/, the sound /Ə/ is the weakest vowel sound and has no long form.

The /Ə/ sound, which is called the schwa sound is the most common sound in the English language. It is called the mid-central vowel sound, while the /e/ sound is known as the close-mid front rounded vowel.

SUMMARY:

The /e/ and /Ə/ sounds have some differences, and some of them have been discussed above.

ASSESSMENT:

  • Categorize the following words, in terms of the sound that appear in them, whether /e/ or /Ə/

Egg, Burn, Shirt, Pet, example, ten, mother, water, leg, nest.

  • Mention one difference between the sound /e/ and sound /Ə/

 

 

GRAMMAR: SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE

OBJECTIVES:

  • To know what the simple future tense is, and give examples
  • To make sentences with verbs in the simple future tense

INTRODUCTION:

The Simple Future Tense is used to make statements that are yet to occur but would occur and end in the future.

 

The Simple Future Tense is used to show events that are going to occur in the future.

The structure of the Simple Future Tense is as follows:

Will/Shall + Verb in its base form

Examples:

  1. shall seemy father on Sunday.
  2. They will travelduring the holiday
  3. He will buythe food tomorrow

Another structure that the Simple Future Tense takes is as follows:

Am/is/are + going to + verb in its base form

Examples:

  1. am going to travelto Kaduna next weekend.
  2. They are going to sleephere tonight.
  3. She is going to marryhim next month.

 

The Simple Present Tense can also be expressed in a negative form. The structure is as follows:

Will/Shall + Not + Verb in its base form

Examples:

  1. will not travelnext week.
  2. She shall not seehim tomorrow.

Am/is/are + Not + going to + Verb in its base form

  1. am not going to seeher tomorrow
  2. They are not going to buythe house next year.

 

SUMMARY:

The Simple Future Tense is used to depict actions that would take place in the future, and the structure it takes is indicated above.

ASSESSMENT:

  1. Make sentences with the following verbs, and put them in the simple future tense form

Go, Dance, Run, Speak, Sing, Work, Fetch, Cut, Treat, Call.

 

 

 

COMPOSITION WRITING: ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY

ROAD TRANSPORTATION IS SAFER THAN AIR TRANSPORTATION

Good day,

Mr Chairman,

The panel of Judges,

Accurate Timekeeper,

Co-debaters,

Ladies and Gentlemen.

My name is Aisha Kareem, I am a JSS1 student of Roseline High School. I am here to oppose the motion that Road Transportation is safer than air transportation. Before I go further, I would love to explain some of the keywords in the given topic:

Road Transportation is the moving of people, goods, animals, etc. from one place to another, by the road, using buses, bicycles, motorcycles, cars, etc.

Air Transportation is the moving of people, goods, and other things from one place to the other, by air, using aeroplanes, helicopters, jets, etc.

Being safe has to do with being free from danger, and harm.

I strongly oppose the motion that road transportation, is safer than air transportation because of the following reasons:

To start with, road transportation is not as safe as air transportation, because, while there may be the case of reckless driving on the road, such cannot occur with aeroplanes. Drivers of vehicles may get reckless while driving, either due to impatience or being drunk, etc. However, this cannot occur in the case of an air flight.

Another reason why air transport is safer than road transportation is that there cannot be a situation of aeroplanes hitting each other to cause an accident like it is with vehicles on the road, whereby vehicles can hit each other leading to a road crash.\

And lastly, road transportation is not as safe as air transportation because most drivers do not check their vehicles before taking them out to drive. However, for air transportation, the aeroplanes are checked regularly, and even before it takes off, to know its working condition.

With these points of mine, I would love to state again that air transportation is safer than road transportation.

Thank you!

 

 

LITERATURE IN ENGLISH: MYTHS AND LEGENDS: FEATURES

OBJECTIVES:

  • To know what myths are
  • To know what legends are
  • To learn about the features of myths and legends

INTRODUCTION:

Myth is a kind of folktale story, that talks about events concerning supernatural beings, and creatures. Myths are usually made up, just to pass across a message.

On the other hand, legends are stories that are told about the historical deeds of great men, and women in the past.

 

Features of Legend

Characters and Setting

  • Characters in a legend are limited to a small cast. They may be inanimate objects, gods, or humans with super traits. The gods are superheroes who may appear in human form but maintain immortality and supernatural abilities. Legends typically take place in the past, and the setting is somehow relevant to the culture from which it derives.
  • Legends are usually based on real characters and events, even though these have been richly embellished and exaggerated over time. This gives the narrative an exciting quality because all the events seem to be within the realm of possibility even when the plot has become so widely adopted or updated that it is completely fictional.

Plot and Theme

  • A legend’s plot will include a lot of action, suspense and conflict. The characters of a legend are often faced with difficult obstacles to overcome and struggle with their fate or destiny. Legends often explain natural phenomena, religious practices and human nature. They usually offer a straightforward moral or a lesson for life.
  • The plot of a legend usually focuses on an individual character, a cultural hero or a person respected and remembered (Jason, King Arthur, Robin Hood, William Tell, Roland) but there are also legends about places (Atlantis, Shangri-La), objects (the Holy Grail, the Philosopher’s Stone) and legendary animals (the Yeti, Loch Ness monster, Sasquatch, Chupacabra).
  • They also convey meaning about the way we live our lives that make them relevant and interesting across cultures and time. This makes them worth repeating through generations and publishing as new versions or adaptations for twenty-first-century readers
  • Legends employ many of the typical themes of traditional stories:
    • good and evil
    • friend and foe
    • magic
    • the supernatural
    • rich and poor/rags to riches/riches to rags
    • wise and foolish
    • strong and weak
    • just and unjust
    • a quest or search
    • a journey
    • trials and forfeits.

Legends, like myths, reveal information about the way people lived, what they believed, what was important to them, what they valued and what they were afraid of.

Point of View 

  • Legends are written from the third person point of view. A legend will reflect upon a society’s culture, values and beliefs and the frail nature, or weakness, of human beings. Readers of the legend will believe that the main character is capable of overcoming any obstacles in his path, and root for him to succeed.

Generations

  • Legends are usually passed down through generations. Prior to printing, legends were passed orally to teach the younger generation a certain set of values.

Structure and style

  • The structure is usually episodic, as in the phases of a journey over several years or the stages of a great battle. Some legends tell the entire life story of their hero as a series of linked episodes, each one a story in its own right, as in the King Arthur stories and the sagas of German-speaking and Northern European countries.

Common structures include:

  • chronological episodes;
  • journey stories;
  • sequential stories;
  • life stories and community histories.

Like myths, legends sometimes use a more literary style than fairy tales or fables.
For example:

  • rich, evocative vocabulary
  • memorable language use
  • use of rhythm and repetition techniques
  • formulaic openings and endings
  • imagery: simile, metaphor and symbolism

 

Features of Myths

Purpose

  • The usual purpose of a myth is to provide an explanation for the origins of phenomena (thunder, day and night, winter) by telling the story of how they came to be. Most cultures used myths, handed down orally from generation to generation from an anonymous source, to explain the world and its mysteries, so mythology from different regions usually reflects the wonders that people saw around them in their own environment.
  • Myths often provide narrative clues that help to build a picture of the beliefs, lifestyles and ideology of the people who first told them.

Themes

  • Myths are set in the past, usually a distant and non-specific past, and are presented as something that actually happened. There is evidence that the content of some myths is based on real events and places that may have existed.
  • Myths explain why the world is the way it is and, for this reason, they reflect the basic principles of the religion or spirituality of the people. For example, Norse and Greek myths narrate what the gods did and how they interacted with humans.

Opposites occur frequently in myths as themes, including:

  • good and evil;
  • night and day;
  • calm and storm;
  • wise and foolish;
  • old and young;
  • beautiful and ugly;
  • mean and generous;
  • just and unjust.

Like other traditional stories, myths use quests, journeys and trials as themes. The hero or heroine often has to undergo some kind of test (the trials of Hercules) or set off on a long and difficult journey where dangers arise at each stage (the Odyssey).

Plot and structure

The plot of a myth usually includes incredible or miraculous, supernatural and superstitious events, where characters behave in superhuman ways using unusual powers or with the help of superhuman beings.

Characters

Characters typical of traditional stories appear in myths (talking animals, rich kings, foolish young men, clever villains) although the ‘trickster’ character is often a mischievous god (Loki, for example). The most notable character types in this sub-class are classic heroes and supernatural beings. The characterisation is an interesting focus for composition when children write their own myths or retell versions because the characters need to be awe-inspiring and larger-than-life.

Style

Rich, evocative vocabulary and use of imagery are typical but style is often more literary than other types of tales so that some versions offer a more challenging read for children. Myths often include a very vivid description of characters and settings (dense, mysterious rainforest or icy, mist-shrouded mountain peaks) and fast-moving narration of action. They tend to make less use of dialogue and repetition than some other types of traditional stories. A simile is used widely to help convey grand settings and describe awe-inspiring characters.

SUMMARY:

Legends are myths are forms of storytelling, but their function differs, in how they are used in society.

ASSESSMENT:

  1. Mention four features of a myth and a legend

 

WEEK 9

SPEECH WORK: INTRODUCTION TO DIPHTHONGS

OBJECTIVES:

By the end of this lesson, students should be able to:

  • Explain diphthong
  • List and describe the 8 diphthongs in the English language, with examples.

INTRODUCTION:

The English vowel sounds are divided into three categories: Short vowels, Long vowels and Diphthongs.

The word “Diphthong” is from the Greek word “Diphthongos”, which means “two sounds”. A diphthong is a combination of two vowel sounds, pronounced as one, by gliding from one sound to the other, within the same syllable. Diphthongs are also known as gliding vowels.

There are 8 diphthongs in the English language, and they shall be listed and described below:

  1. /ai/
  2. /ei/
  3. /Ͻi/
  4. /ƏƱ/
  5. /aƱ/
  6. /eƏ/
  7. /iƏ/
  8. /ƱƏ/
  9. /ai/- This is produced by gliding from vowel sound /æ/ to /i/. It appears in words that have “igh”, “y”, “i”. When it appears in words with “i”, a consonant follows, then “e” comes next, as in the words like: bite, cite.

Examples of words that carry the /ai/ sound are: light, might, my, bite, etc.

The /ai/ sound appears in different words, in form of the following letters:

  • i- kite, site, rise
  • igh- sight, night, fight
  • ie- die, lie,
  • y- cry, dry, fry.
  1. /ei/- This is produced by gliding from vowel sound /e/ to /i/. It appears in words that carry “ey”, “ay”, “ai”, “a”. When it appears in words with “a”, a consonant follows, then “e” comes next, as in words like: plate, lame, etc.

Examples of words that carry the /ei/ sound are: they, blame, play, same.

The /ei/ sound appears in different words, in form of the following letters:

  • ey- they,
  • ay- lay, may, say
  • ai- wait, bait,
  • a- made, fate
  1. /Ͻi/: This is produced by gliding from /Ͻ/ to /i/. It appears in words that carry “oy”, “oi”

Examples of words that carry the /Ͻi/ sound are: oil, boy, coil, soil, etc.

The /Ͻi/ sound appears in different words, in form of the following letters:

  • oi- oil, boil, foil
  • oy- toy, boy, coy.
  1. /ƏƱ/- This is produced by gliding from vowel sound /Ə/ to /Ʊ/. It appears in words that carry “ow”, “oa”, “o”. When it appears in words with “o”, a consonant follows, then “e”comes next, as in words like: poke, pole, mole, etc.

Examples of words that carry the /ƏƱ/ sound are: load, fold, road, etc.

The /ƏƱ/ sound appears in different words, in form of the following letters:

  • ow- low, row,
  • oa- load, goal,
  • o- mode, code
  1. /aƱ/: This is produced by gliding from vowel sound /æ/ to /Ʊ/. It appears in words that carry “ou”, “ow”.

Examples of words that carry the /aƱ/ sound are: how, loud, down, etc.

The /aƱ/ sound appears in different words, in form of the following letters:

  • ou- pound, found
  • ow- how, gown
  1. /eƏ/: This is produced by gliding from vowel sound /e/ to /Ə/. It appears in words that carry “ai”, “ea”, “a”, “e”. When it appears in words that carry “a”and “e”, the letter “r” follows immediately, as in words like: hare, where.

Examples of words that carry the /eƏ/ sound are: wear, where, fare.

The /eƏ/ sound appears in different words, in form of the following letters:

  • ea-wear, bear
  • e-where, there
  • a- hare, mare, fare
  • ai- lair, fair
  1. /iƏ/: This is produced by gliding from vowel sound /i/to /Ə/. It appears in words that carry “ea”, “e”. When it appears in words that carry “e”, it is followed by either “r”or “l”, in words like: sphere

Examples of words that carry the /iƏ/ sound are: hear, atmosphere, etc

The /iƏ/ sound appears in different words, in form of the following letters:

  • ea- hear, rear
  • e- sphere, serious
  1. /ƱƏ/: This is produced by gliding from vowel sound /Ʊ/ to /Ə/. It is almost unnoticed in words, and it appears in words that have “u”before “r”, such as pure, sure.

The /ƱƏ/ sound appears in different words, in form of the following letter:

  • u- pure, jury, cu

SUMMARY:

Above is a vivid description of the Diphthongs in the English language, with examples.

ASSESSMENT:

  • Write out four words each, that carry each of the eight diphthongs described above.
  • Use the words listed above to make sentences.

 

 

GRAMMAR: MAKING SENTENCES WITH THE SIMPLE PAST TENSE

OBJECTIVES:

By the end of this lesson, students should be able to:

  • Define the Simple Past Tense, with examples
  • To make sentences with verbs in the Simple Past Tense

INTRODUCTION:

The Simple Past Tense is used to show an action that just took place in the past, and is no longer happening in the present.

Simple Past Tense

We use the simple past tense for events that happened or started and completed in the past and that have no relation with the present.

We use the simple past tense:

  • to describe an action that occurred in the past or at a specified timeor the time is easily understood or already implied.

Example: We finished our breakfast an hour ago. (NOT: We have/had finished our breakfast
an hour ago.)
Example: My brother played soccer for Chelsea two weeks ago.

  • for an action that beganand ended in the past.

Example: The dangerous criminal was recaptured after three months on the run.

  • to refer to an action completedregardless of how recent or distant in the past.

Example: Alexander Bell invented the telephone in 1876.
Example: My brother joined the circus as a clown last week

SUMMARY:

The Simple Past tense is used to show just completed actions, that is not being done in the present.

ASSESSMENT:

Use the following words in the simple past tense to make sentences

Ran, Washed, Built, Worked, Rested, Won, Fell, Sold, Made, Matched

 

 

COMPOSITION: A FESTIVAL IN MY VILLAGE

The first time I attended my village’s new yam festival was in 2017. It was around August, and we were on a long-term vacation from school, at the time.  Before that year, my grandmother had once told me the story about how our town came to be, and why we celebrated the new yam festival.

That particular year, I was very happy to be in the village, when the festival was to hold, and I made sure to participate actively. The festival was scheduled to hold for two days, from Saturday morning to Sunday evening. On Friday evening, people started arriving from different parts of the country to the village, to attend the festival. It was during that period that I met one of my uncles who lives in Port Harcourt, with his family. I also got to meet some of my cousins too.

On Friday morning, the men in the village began to harvest yams from their farms, while the youths and children carried them home, in big baskets. Immediately, women in every household came together to cook different delicacies like Egusi, Vegetable soup, Oha, Abacha, etc. Yams were also cut and boiled, to prepare for pounding.

I joined the young boys to get firewood and helped with carrying palm wine, tapped by the youths, while the girls assisted the women with the cooking. Early on Saturday morning by 6 am, the women started pounding yam, and finishing up on other meals.

By 10 am, that day, the festival began in full gear, with the young ladies dancing to the sound of the drums, as beaten by the young men. Wrestling matches were done, as well as Masquerades display. Everyone ate to the fullest, and even took some food home, afterwards.

By Sunday evening, we all went to the King’s palace for the final round of the festival, where every household head was given a gift by the King.

It was a great festival, and I look forward to attending it every year.

 

I hope the above has helped? Please feel free to ask questions as regards the English Studies approved JSS1 English Studies Second Term lesson note for 2024 if you have any and I will be glad to assist.

Kindly make use of the share button below so others can gain from this vital piece of information.

 

 

 

 


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