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Please note that the Second Term lesson note is curled out from the approved scheme of work for Junior Secondary school. So you can do your verification as well and compare the Second Term lesson note for JSS1 Home Economics as seen on the free PDF file made available towards the end of this post.
The JSS1 Home Economics lesson note for Second Term is in line with the 2023 JSS1 Home Economics scheme of work for the term. This means the JSS1 Home Economics lesson note is tailored towards achieving the aim and objective for the subject as mandated by the ministry of education.
JSS1 Home Economics Second Term Lesson Note 2023
JSS1 SECOND TERM HOME ECONOMICS NOTE
WEEK ONE TO WEEK TWELVE
SCHEME OF WORK
|1||Revision of last term’s work|
|2||The family: meaning and types of the family, the family tree|
|3||The Home: meaning and characteristics of a home, difference between a home and a house, domestic violence|
|4||Care of the family house: reasons for care of the family house, equipments, tools and materials needed to care for the house, daily and weekly care of the house, waste disposal|
|5||Production of homemade cleaning agents: preparation of cleaning agent (home made vim)|
|6||Cosmetics and deodorants: types, materials and tools required for making cosmetics|
|7||Safety, quality and regulatory control of cosmetics products in Nigeria, Roles of regulatory bodies of NAFDAC, SON|
|8||Family needs, goals and standard: meaning and types of family needs and wants, meaning of family goals and standards|
|9||Relationship among family needs, goals and standard, uses of family needs, goals and standard in resource management|
|10||Decision making in the family: meaning and steps in decision making, making simple personal and family decisions.|
Topic: THE FAMILY
- The Family
- Types of Family
- Roles/Responsibilities of Family Members
- Family Tree
- THE FAMILY
A family is a group of persons or people who live together and are united either by cords of marriage, blood, adoption, by birth and sharing of common residence. The family consists of father and mother/ mothers and children.
Typical Example of a Family
TYPES OF FAMILY
NUCLEAR FAMILY: It can also be referred as a monogamous family. It consist of a father, a mother and children.
POLYGAMOUS FAMILY: This type of family is made of a man and his wives and their children.
EXTENDED FAMILY: It is the type of family that is made up of the father, mother, children and relatives like aunt, uncle, grandparents e.t.c
An extended family consisting of the father, mother, grandparents, cousins, aunts and uncles.
FAMILY RELATIONSHIP OR KINSHIP PATTERN
|Parents||Father and mother|
|Siblings||Brothers and sisters|
|Uncles||Mather’s or father’s brother|
|Aunts||Mother’s or father’s sister|
|Nephews||Brother’s or sister’s sons|
|Nieces||Brother’s or sister’s daughters|
- ROLES/RESPONSIBILITIES OF FAMILY MEMBERS
ROLE OF THE FATHER
- He is the head of the family
- He is the family bread winner
- He maintains discipline in the family
- He provides money for food, clothing and the up-keep of the family
- He shows love and maintains peace in the home
ROLES OF THE MOTHER
- She bears and rear children
- She shows love to her husband and children
- She is the home-maker in the family
- She teaches the children different skills
- She cares for the home and the family members
ROLES OF CHILDREN
- Respect and obey their parent and other adults in the society
- Help with house chores for young ones cleaning the house e.t.c
- Learn the culture of the society
- Love themselves and their parents
- They carry the name of the family e.t.c
Example of a Family Tree
- Define family?
- List the three types of family?
- Define family values?
- List five importance of family value?
Topic: THE HOME
- THE HOME
Meaning of a Home
A home is a house in which a family lives. A home is therefore an abode or dwelling place for a family. It is more than a house. A home is where the family members can share their interests, joy, love, activities and troubles. It is a place where they can relax, be at ease, live and work together for the benefits of each other and the whole family.
CHARACTERISTICS OF A HOME
- A home normally belongs to a family which owns it.
- It is a dwelling place for a family.
- It must provide confort and security for the family.
- There must be communication among family members in the home.
- Family members share love, companionship and intimacies in the home.
- Families sometimes experience different types of violence in the home.
Difference between a home and a house
A house is just a building or structure which can be used for various purposes. A house that offers opportunities to meet the needs of a family love becomes a home.
Violence is a physical force used to harm someone or something. It result in damage to property or injury to people. In some cases, it may results to death. Violence is “the intentional use of physical force or power, threatened or actual, against oneself, another person, or against a group or community, which either results in or has a high likelihood of resulting in injury, death, psychological harm, mal-development, or deprivation”.
TYPES OF VIOLENCE
Violence can be divided into three broad categories:
- Self-directed violence: Self-directed violence is subdivided into suicidal behaviour and self-abuse. The former includes suicidal thoughts, attempted suicides – also called para suicideor deliberate self-injury in some countries – and completed suicides. Self-abuse, in contrast, includes acts such as self-mutilation.
- Interpersonal violence: Interpersonal violence is divided into two subcategories: Family and intimate partner violence – that is, violence largely between family members and intimate partners, usually, though not exclusively, taking place in the home. Community violence – violence between individuals who are unrelated, and who may or may not know each other, generally taking place outside the home. The former group includes forms of violence such as child abuse, intimate partner violence and abuse of the elderly.
- Collective violence: Collective violence that is committed to advance a particular social agenda includes, for example, crimes of hate committed by organized groups, terrorist acts and mob violence. Political violence includes war and related violent conflicts, state violence and similar acts carried out by larger groups.
Violent acts can be:
A violent act from Father to the family
FACTS ABOUT VIOLENCE
- It’s often learnt when people grow up with violence
- It occurs in many family
- Children and teens learn violence from adults or see it on television
- It can be unlearned
- Violence hurts people
This is the type of violence that occurs in the home. It can be between husband and wife or among siblings or from parents to children.
TYPES OF DOMESTIC VIOLENCE
There are different types of domestic violence.
- Child abuse: Neglect abuse
- emotional abuse
- physical abuse
- sexual abuse
WAYS OF HANDLING DOMESTIC VIOLENCE
They are ways of handling domestic violence. All the different types of domestic violence are wrong. In order to handle it, it is necessary that:
- Listen and provide help to those abused person if necessary
- Always listen to your children complain not neglecting them especially those relating to abuse
- The home should always be conducive for all family members
- Family members should communicate properly with each other
- Parents should know and respect the rights of their children.
- Define Home?
- Define Violence?
- Identify and explain types of Violence?
- List 3 ways of handling Domestic Violence?
- List 5 types of Domestic Violence?
Topic: CARE OF THE FAMILY HOUSE
Care of the Family
Equipment, Tools and Materials for Cleaning the House
Cleaning of the House
- CARE OF THE FAMILY HOUSE
The house plays many important roles in the lives of the members and also for the well-being of the family
REASONS FOR CARE OF THE FAMILY HOUSE
- It helps maintain clean appearance
- It helps to maintain good hygiene
- It helps to prolong the life span of the house and its content i.e cleaned carpet will last
- To prevent the spoilage of household equipment, tools, linen, furniture etc
- To maintain good health
- For orderliness in the house
- EQUIPMENT, TOOLS AND MATERIALS FOR CLEANING THE HOUSE
- Brooms and Brushes– Brooms are made from palm fronds, while brushes are made from horse hair, nylon or vegetable fibre
- Short or hand brooms or long brushes are used for sweeping the floor
- Long handled soft brooms and brushes are used for removing cobwebs from walls and ceiling
- Toilet brushes – used for cleaning the water closet (WC) toilet
- Stiff hard brushes are used for cleaning upholstery rugs and carpet etc
These are normally made soft non-fluffy or lithe clothes
- Used slightly damped with water and suitable oil
- They can be used dry for gathering and removing dust from surface etc
- Mop-heads made of trusted cotton yarns: These are attached to a long or short handles
- Dry mops are used for dusting surfaces
- Damp wet mops can be used for watching floors other comma house cleaning tools includes:
- Dust pens
- Buckets or pails
- Dust bin etc
- CLEANING OF THE HOUSE
Cleaning is the process of removing dust, tarnishes, stains, and other foreign matter from articles and surface
METHODS OF CLEANING
- DUST: Is fine dry loose particles blown by air. It often contains powder dry vegetables and animal matter, bacteria etc.
- DIRT: Is dust that becomes firmly held moisture, Greece or rough surfaces. It is fixed dust and cannot be removed by currents of air.
- DUSTING: This is the process of removal of dust, using a cloth or duster.
- DISPOSAL OF HOUSEHOLD WASTES
Families consume different goods and services and in the process generate different kinds of wastes such as wastes food, pieces of clothes, and pieces of paper, empty tins and bottles
When wastes are not properly disposed, different problems can occur such as
- Blockage of water channels
- Breeding place for diseases carrying pests like mosquito
METHODS OF WASTE PRODUCTS DISPOSAL
The method of disposal is determined by the type of waste and the facilities available include:
- Burying: That is broken plates, bottles, cups etc.
- Burning: Dry wastes materials i.e. old newspapers, dried leaves, rags can be disposed by burning
- Feeding animals i.e. pigs and chicken can feed on food waste such as cooked rice, yams etc. Dogs can eat bones, while goats and sheep can feed on some vegetable wastes.
- Making composts: Waste which can rotten or decay such as vegetables some animals can be used for making compost.
- List 5 reasons why we care for the family house?
- What equipment do we use in cleaning the house and what are their uses?
- List 4 major ways of disposing waste products?
- Mention 3 methods of cleaning?
PRODUCTION OF CLEANING AGENTS
- Meaning of Home Cleaning Agent
- Materials and Procedure for Making Home-made Furniture Polish
- Materials and Procedure for Making Home-made Scouring Powder (Local abrasive)
- Uses of Home-made Cleaning Agents
Meaning of Home Cleaning Agent
Cleaning agents are substances, usually liquids, powders, sprays or granules that are used to remove dirt, grease and deposits from different surfaces in the home, e.g. detergents, bleaches, polishes, and waxes.
Home-made Furniture Polish
Materials Needed for Making Home-made Furniture Polish
(i) 28gm candle wax
(ii) 8gm bar soap
(iii) 7ml boiling water
(iv) 7ml turpentine or kerosene
Procedure for Making Home-made Furniture Polish
- Grate the wax and soap.
- Place the grated mixture in an earthen ware pot or enamel pot.
- Pour the boiling ware over the mixture
- Stand the pot in boiling water and allow the content to melt.
- Beat the melted mixture thoroughly into cream using a wooding spoon.
- Add turpentine gradually and keep beating until the polish is perfectly blended.
- Store in a good container and cover well.
Home-made Scouring Powder (Local abrasive)
Materials Needed for Making Home-made Scouring Powder
(i) Egg shells
(ii) Broken chin ware (if available)
(iii) Detergent powder
Procedure for Making Home-made Scouring Powder
- Grind the egg shells and pieces of china wares into very fine powder
- Sift the mixture to ensure a smooth powder.
- Mix the powder thoroughly with the detergent powder
- Store in a dry contain and cover with a tight fitting lid.
Uses of Home-made Cleaning Agents
Different materials can be obtained or produced in the home and used as cleaning agents. These include:
- Fine sand: This can be obtained from;
- Sifted sand with the use of sieve, mixed with powdered detergent.
- Sand sucked from rugs, carpet or foot mat with the use of vacuum cleaner. vacuum cleaner.
- “Edo” powder: This is a yellow substance that is common in Nigerian markets. It has a fine smooth texture. It can be used for cleaning ornaments such as copper, gold and brass.
- Finely ground charcoal: This can be used for cleaning clean metal surfaces.
- Pawpaw leaves: Fresh paw-paw leaves can be used for cleaning dirty galvanised pails and blackened aluminium pans and pots.
- Local sand paper leaves (Asisa leaves): These leaves have rough sandy surfaces. They can be used as abrasives for cleaning plain wood surface, blackened pots, etc.
- Home-made “Vim” scouring powder (Abrasives): These can be made from;
- dried ground egg shell
- wood or charcoal ash mixed with detergent
- Broken china ware or tiles mixed with powdered detergent
- Explain the meaning of cleaning agents
- State five uses of cleaning agent
Teacher should demonstrate and carry out the practical in class.
PRODUCTION OF COSMETICS AND DEODORANTS
- Meaning of Cosmetics
- Meaning of Deodorants
- Meaning of Anti-perspirants
- Types of Cosmetics
- Materials and Tools for Making Cosmetics
Meaning of Cosmetics
Cosmetics are substances which we apply on our faces, hair or bodies to look more attractive e.g. body creams and oils, nails vanishes, etc. We can also call them make-ups. Other examples of make-up are shampoo, hair conditioner, perfume, powder, soap, cream, lotion, nail vanishes, lips sticks, body cream body oils etc.
Meaning of Deodorants
Deodorants are substances that are put on the skin to prevent the body from having an unpleasant smell. Examples are roll-on, spay, sticks, perfume etc.
Meaning of Anti-perspirants
These are special products or astringents that reduce the amount of perspiration a person secretes for several hours. Products that contain antiperspirant and deodorant combined together are called anti-perspirant deodorants.
Other examples of make-up are shampoo, hair conditioner, perfume, powder, soap, cream, lotion, nail vanishes, lips sticks, body cream body oils etc.
Types of Cosmetics
Indigenous (local) Cosmetics
These are naturally occurring local cosmetics. Some of them were used in the past to improve appearance. Some are still in use today. They include:
(i) Eye make-up “tiro” (Yoruba) or “tanjere” (igbo): this can be ground into powder. It is applied as eyeliner using a special thin stick reserved for the purpose.
(ii) Cam wood powder “uhe” (igbo) or “oshun” (Yoruba) this is a red wood which can be thoroughly ground into a fine powder. It can also be made into a paste by mixing the powder with little water and palm oil. It can be used on the face or entire body. It is said to have a smoothening effect on the skin.
(iii) Body paint “uri or uli” (igbo): this is a special body paint made from the bark, seeds or roots of certain trees. It also has some medicinal effects.\
(iv) “lali or lalle” :this is a special make-up from leaves of a special tree. The leaves are ground into paste and mixed with lemon or lime juice. It is commonly used by ladies in the Northern parts of Nigeria to paint their finger and toe nails as the outline of the hands and feet.
(v) “Nzu” (igbo) or “Efun” (Yoruba): This is a local chalk. It can be ground into powder and applied on the face and body.
(vi) “Edo or odo” (igbo): This is a yellow substance. It can be made into a paste and applied on the skin. It is said to have smoothening effect on the skin.
Materials and Tools for Making Cosmetics
Recipe and Procedure for Making Pomade (Vaseline)
We are already aware of the materials and tools required for making pomade in this lesson, we shall be taught the quantity of each material required and the practical procedure for making pomade.
Recipe for Making Pomade (Vaseline)
- 2 cups of petroleum jelly
- ¾ cup of mineral oil
- 1% mineral wax for thickening
- 1 table spoon of lanoline
- Colour (as desired)
- Perfume (as desired)
Note: These materials including quantity measurement can be gotten from shops where cosmetics production chemicals are sold.
Procedure for Making Pomade (Vaseline)
- Measure out all ingredients as specified under recipe
- Put all the oil ingredients in the sauce pan
- Add the lanoline into the mixture
- Add the wax and melt
- Add colour to taste
- Add perfume but avoid evaporation
- Stir thoroughly to obtain your pomade
- Pour out the pomade into the containers
- list five materials for making pomade(Vaseline)
- identify five indigenous cosmetics
REGULATORY CONTROL OF COSMETIC PRODUCTS IN NIGERIA
- Regulatory Control of Cosmetic Products in Nigeria
- The National Agency for Food and Drugs Administration and Control (NAFDAC)
- Functions of NAFDAC
- Other Roles of Regulatory Bodies of Cosmetic Products
Regulatory Control of Cosmetic Products in Nigeria
Cosmetic products both locally produced and produced must be safe for human use. The agency of government responsible for certifying them safe and of good quality is the National Agency for Food and Drugs Administration and Control (NAFDAC).
The National Agency for Food and Drugs Administration and Control (NAFDAC)
National Agency for Food and Drugs Administration and Control (NAFDAC) is a government agency responsible for the formulation of food standards and laws, their enforcement and implementation.
Functions of NAFDAC
Functions of NAFDAC include;
- Restriction on products that are not registered by the regulatory agency (NAFDAC).
- An application for the approval of an advertisement.
- Prohibition of unfair or misleading advertisement.
- Prohibition of expired cosmetics.
- Bleaching cream and other harmful cosmetics are prohibited.
Other Roles of Regulatory Bodies of Cosmetic Products
Other roles of regulatory bodies e.g. NAFDAC, SON, etc. of cosmetic products include the following:
- Conducting tests on cosmetic products for safety and quality.
- Allocation of NAFDAC number on safe and quality products.
- Displaying of NAFDAC number on the label of products.
- Ensuring that the products are clearly labelled with the following information.
- Address and name of manufacturer.
- Production and expiry dates.
- Uses of the products.
- Directions on how to use the product.
- Ensuring that substances dangerous to health are not used in the production of cosmetics.
- Banning the use of cosmetic products found to contain substances dangerous to health.
- Banning the use of cosmetic products found to contain substances dangerous to health.
- Determine the quantity of certain substances used in the production of cosmetics.
- Banning sale and distribution of adulterated cosmetic products as well as bleaching cosmetics.
- Other contents used in production of the cosmetic must not exceed the stipulated amount.
- No product not on the label should be found in the content used for production.
- Explain the meaning of regulatory body.
- Mention four regulatory bodies that are in control of cosmetics and deodorants in Nigeria.
AMILY NEEDS, GOALS AND STANDARDS
- Meaning of Family Needs and Wants
- Types of Family Needs
- Meaning of Family Goals and Standards
Meaning of Family Needs and Wants
Family needs are the things that are essential for the family’s physical, emotional, mental and social health. Wants, on the other hand, are those things which the family desire even though they are not essential for the health and well-being of the family.
Types of Family Needs
- Basic/Primary Needs
These are very important needs in the family which the family cannot do without. They are needed by family members for survival. They are:
(iv) Health care
- Secondary Needs
These are those things the family wants. They are not as important as the primary needs. This implies that the family can continue to exist without the provision of secondary needs.
Examples of secondary needs are: Pocket money for the family members, extra clothing, family car, etc.
Meaning of Family Goals and Standards
Family goals are specific purposes or objectives the family has in mind, e.g. building a house, buying a car, providing good education for the children etc.
Standards are measures of quality, quantity, and method of goal attainment. They are used to measure the value of something, such as an activity (e.g. standard of living). Standards are what a person or a family will accept as good and worthwhile. For instance, to pass a home economics examination could be your goal but to obtain an A instead of a C is your standard. So this standard then acts as your limit and will influence your action because of the satisfaction you hope to get from it. Thus you are forced to work hard for an A.
The standards set by a family influence their use of resources. For instance, providing three meals a day can be the goal of the family, but the standard could be that the meals must be balanced and served on the dining table.
- Differentiate between family needs and wants.
- Explain the three basic human needs.
- Define (a) goals (b) standards.
FAMILY GOALS AND STANDARDS
- Types of Family Goals
- Types of Family Standards
- Relationship Among Family Needs, Goals and Standards
- Uses of Family Needs, Goals and Standards in Resource Management
Types of Family Goals
Family goals can be classified according to the time needed to achieve them as follows:
- Long-term goals:These are big family goals which take a very long period of time to achieve, e.g. building a house, buying a car, saving money for retirement, having healthy children, and providing good education for the children. These long-term goals influence the other types of goals set by the family.
- Short-term or intermediate goals:These are goals set up as means of achieving the long-term goals. They take less time to achieve than the long-term goals. For instance, the regular provision of three balanced meal each day for the children could be a short-term goal towards meeting the long-term goal of raising healthy children.
- Means-end or instrumental goals:These are simple, immediate goals which can be regarded as steps taken to achieve the more complex goals. They take very short time to achieve. For instance, shopping for food, planning, preparation and serving meals could be means-end goals which can be used to achieve the intermediate goal of providing children with balanced meals.
Types of Family Standards
Types of family standards include the following:
- Economic Standards: Family member should be hard working to enable them provide what they need.
- Social Standards: Family members should be law abiding and avoid criminal activities.
- Moral Standards: Family members should maintain fairness and justice in dealing with fellow human beings.
- Cultural Standards: Family members should live within acceptable pattern of behaviour.
Relationship among Family Needs, Goals and Standards
Family needs, goals and standards are related to one another. They cannot be separated from each other. For instance a family that needs a house will plan on how to achieve it and decide on the standard (level) e.g. bungalow or duplex. Standards are needed to tell when goals have been achieved.
Uses of Family Needs, Goals and Standards in Resource Management
Resources are tools and talents with which people build their life styles. Family resources are classified into two:
(i) Human resources: These are resources existing within people. These include energy, skill, knowledge, time, talents and traits.
(ii) Non-human resources: These are resources that exist outside people but they are owned, used and controlled by the family. They include money, goods and landed property, community facilities such as markets, roads, parks, schools libraries, etc.
Money as the family income is the most highly appreciated and valued among the resources because it is the basis for the provision of family primary needs.
Uses of Family Needs, Goals and Standards in Resource Management
Family needs, goals and standards play major roles in resource management as followed;
- They help to make and implement family budget.
- They help to make savings.
- They help to set priorities.
- They help to make financial plans.
- Set goals you can achieve with the money at hand and not the dream situation.
- State two main types of resources
- Give four examples of each
- Give four roles of family goal, needs and standards in resource management.
- Make comparison of your family needs and the resources to your family.
DECISION MAKING IN THE FAMILY
MEANING OF DECISION MAKING
Decision making is the act of making a choice from alternatives courses of actions or things. Decision making can only take place when there are two things to choose from. When you are faced with only one course of action, there will be no decision making.
STEPS IN DECISION MAKING
The steps in decision making are:
- Identify the decision to be made: this involves defining a decision. For example, your problem could be to buy a new pair of shoes, you have to decide on what you will use the shoe for, the type of shoes, the colour, where to buy the shoes e.t.c. then you have to consider your other needs and the money available.
- List the alternatives: alternatives are different ways of doing a thing. Using the example in step 1, the alternatives could be to buy from second hand shops, from the market, shopping malls or from a boutigue. You also have to list alternative colour of shoes, types of shoe e.t.c.
- Choose the best alternatives. To do this, you have to think about your values, goals, wants, money available and needs.
- Act on your decision: carry out your decision to the best of your ability. This means going to buy the shoes.
- Evaluate your decision: this involves judging the quality of the decision made or how well it works for you. For instance does the pair of shoes you selected go well with many of the dresses in your wardrobe? Sometimes, if the outcome of a decision is not what you expected or hope for, you may have to make a new decision.
FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE DECISION MAKING
- Needs and wants.
- Define decision making
- Mention factors that affect decision making
Make a simple personal decision, list the methods or steps you followed to achieve your goals.
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