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SS1 Government Third Term Lesson Note 2023
THIRD TERM – SS ONE
- I ) Revision and Political participation:
- Meaning, forms, purpose, factors affecting
- II) Centralization and decentralization:
- Reasons for its adoption, types, merits and
- Delegated Legislation:
- Definition, types and reasons
- Delegated legislation:
- Merits and demerits; control of delegated legislation.
- Meaning, ways of acquiring Citizenship
- & 6 Citizenship:
- ways of losing citizenship;
- Rights of a citizen: meaning, duties and
Obligation of a citizen in a state.
- Ways of safeguarding citizens’ rights
- Limitations to a citizen’s rights.
Difference between a citizen and non-citizen
7 political parties :
- Definition, types, features, functions.
- party manifestoes and its importance
8 Party system :
- Definition, types, merits and demerits.
9 Pressure groups:
- Meaning, types, functions, factors that can aid its effective operations.
- Mode of its operation
10 Factors working against the success of
- ii) Danger posed by its activities
iii) Comparison between pressure group and
12 & 13 Examination
TOPIC: POLITICAL PARTICIPATION
Political participation could be defined as the process of voluntary involvement of the people in the political activities of their country. i.e. when they take active participation in chosen their rulers and also involve in decision making in the government of their country.
FORMS OF POLITICAL PARTICIPATION
- Belonging to political parties:This is an active political participation in which activist come together to form political parties. Members of the parties do take active part in electioneering campaigns, political rallies and other forms of political meetings.
- Contesting elections: some active political participants’ stands as candidates seeking elective public offices on the platform of political parties or as private candidates if the constitution allows it.
- Sponsoring of political parties:sponsoring political parties financially is another form of political participation. Some wealthy citizens sponsor political parties as their own way of political participation.
- As a voter: voting in an election gives one an opportunity to participate in the election of people’s representatives in government .
- Polling agents: by acting as government representative at the polling, a person is directly involved in the political activities of his country.
THE PURPOSE OF POLITICAL PARTICIPATION.
- As a political animal:according to Aristotle the famous Greek philosopher, man by nature is a political animal. Man therefore, takes part in political activities in order to satisfy that instinct in him as a political animal.
- To write the wrong of those in power:some people desires participation in politics in order to correct atrocious activities of those in power.
- For equitable distribution of resources: if the resources of a country are inequitable distributed, many people may be forced to take part in politics in order to equitably distribute such resources.
- The need for self- actualizing: these are those who have made it in order fields of human endeavor that seek participation in politics as self- fulfillment.
- As a status symbol: some other people desire political office n order to increase their self- image. These groups of people are not after the material and economic gains of political office but as status symbols.
- Explain five ways how popular participation can be promoted
The term centralization refers to a system of governmental administration in which power is concentrated in one single central authority.
The highest degree of centralization is achieved in unitary states.
Unitary states like Britain, Italy, France, etc. are examples of centralization of governmental administration.
ADVANTAGES OF CENTRALISATION
1.It is easier for decision making
2.The cost of it running is cheap
3.It makes for quick action
4.It is very easy to amend
5.It makes for strong government
FACTORS THAT GIVES RISE TO THE ADOPTION OF UNITARY GOVERNMENT.
- Size of the country: small size of a country gives rise to the adoption of unitary system of government for example; Togo and Ghana, etc.
- Absence of tribal differences:a unitary system of government is adopted in countries with homogeneous people which remove ethnic differences.
- Lack of fear of domination: countries where the difference sections of the nation do not fear any form of domination usually adopt unitary system of government.
- Political expediency: this may be as a result of the need for solidarity and cohesion for the defense and survival of the country.
- Absence of minority groups:where there are no minority groups unitary system of government can work well there.
MERITS OF UNITARY GOVERNMENT.
- Stronger and stable government: it tends to be stronger and more stable than federal system of government. By virtue of the fact that, the citizen shows loyalty to one central government.
- Reduction in cost: the cost of running a unitary system of government is reduced because there is no duplication of government offices.
- Quicker decisions: quicker decisions are made because; he single authority into which powers are concentrated need not consult any order authority before taking decisions.
PROMOTION OF NATIONAL UNITY
No double loyalty: the citizens shows loyalty to only one government or authority – the central authority.
DEMERITS OF UNITARY GOVERNMENT
- Encouragement of dictatorship: It leads to dictatorship as a result of centralization of powers in a single authority.
- The central government is over burdened with too much problems as a result of centralization of all governmental powers in one single authority.
- Government is kept far away from the people.
- It kills local initiatives.
- It leads to domination of minority groups.
- Compare decentralization and centralization
The term decentralization refers to a system of governmental administration in which powers are not concentrated in a single central authority but shared among component regional and local units or state district from the central government. Decentralization exists in a federal structure. USA, Nigeria, Federal Republic of Germany, etc. are examples of decentralization of government administration.
FORMS OF DECENTRALIZATION
- Devolution: This is a system of administration in which semi- autonomous Regional governments are created with defined powers and functions but subordinate to the central government. South Africa and Northern Ireland are examples of devolutionary government.
- Deconcentration : This refers to a system of administration in which powers are shared in such a way that the component states are not directly subordinate to the central authority.
REASONS FOR THE ADOPTION OF DECENTRALIZATION
- Fear of domination: in a multi-ethnic nation like Nigeria, the fear of one ethnic group dominating others may give rise to the establishment of federalism.
- Tribal differences: differences in culture, religion, language, custom, tradition, etc. among different grounds of a country may lead to the establishment of federalism.
- The size of the country: large population and wide geographical areas are some of the reasons that give rise to the establishment of federalism.
- To bring government nearer to the people.
- For security reasons: separate and sovereign states may come together and form federalism e.g. U S A< Australia and Switzerland.
MERIT OF DECENTRALIZATION.
- It brings government nearer to the people. E.g. local government council and states.
- Political unity: It unite people of different of political, social, geographical, cultural, religious historical and linguistic origin together.
- It encourages healthy competition in states or regions which leads to rapid development.
- It guarantees human rights where the constitution is supreme.
- Creation of more employment opportunities where duplication of offices are available.
DEMERIT OF DECENTRALIZATION.
- Inter- state friction: this is as a result of differences in opinions into which powers are divided.
- It is expensive to operate.
- There is difficulty in taking quick decisions.
- There is problem of co-ordination: it is problematic in coordinating a federal state as a result of many areas in to which powers are divided.
- It causes disunity: this is because emphasis is more on areas of differences among various ethnic groups in the country.
- Define political participation
- What are the forms of political participation?
- What are the purposes for political participation?
- Give reasons why nations adopt unitary government.
- Account for the reasons for the adoption of decentralization.
TOPIC: DELEGATED LEGISLATION
Delegated legislation may be defined as laws, rules and regulations made by other bodies or persons other than the legislative but sanctioned by the legislature.
REASONS FOR DELEGATED LEGISLATION.
- Delegated legislation is used to reduce the work load of the legislature.
- It is also used to facilitate the law making process.
- The technical nature of some legislation makes it possible for the legislature to pass them to experts in other bodies.
- Delegated legislation is used in order to avoid rigidity.
- It is properly used in emergency period because of its flexibility.
TYPES OF DELEGATED LEGISLATION.
Orders– in–council: These are powers delegated to the British king or queen to issue orders on certain matters which have the force of law.
Bye – laws: These are rules and regulations made by local government authorities or local councils, public corporations and other similar bodies. It have effects in its area of operation/ jurisdiction.
Provisional orders: These are orders conferring powers upon individual authorities or bodies made by a minister as authorized by parliamentary acts. The public can only act when the bill has been approved.
Statutory instruments: These are known as ministerial orders or departmental orders. They are orders or rules issued by ministers or commissioners under the authority conferred on them by Acts of parliamentary.
Warrants: Search warrants by senior police officers to suspectd persons and bench warrants by high court judges for a person to appear before the courts to give evidences are parts of delegated legislation.
- Define Delegated Legislation
- Ague the reasons for the need for delegated legislation
- Mention and discuss the various types of delegated legislation.
TOPIC : DELEGATED LEGISLATION
MERITS OF DELEGATED LEGISLATION
Time saving: This saves the parliamentarians time and energy that could have been dissipated on such issues.
It is suitable for emergency periods.
Use of experts in technical subjects : It makes it possible for different expert to make technical laws in their different fields.
It helps to bring government nearer to the people.
It saves costs: delegated legislation saves cost in terms of materials and human resources and the formalities involved in the passage of bills.
DEMERIT OF DELEGATED LEGISLATION
- It reduces the supremacy of the parliament. This is because delegated legislation served as a beach you the function of the legislature by the executive.
- It is prone abuse.
- It is against the principle of separation of powers.
- It is undemocratic: it encourages those without the people’s mandate to make laws.
- It is a violation of fundamental Human Rights.
CONTROL OF DELEGATED LEGISLATION.
- Parliamentary control.
- Committee on statutory instrument.
- Judicial or legal control : the law court has power to declare any delegated legislation invalid, ultra-null and void and of no effects.
- Ministerial control: minister have the power and authority to approve and control bye-laws made in their ministries, companies and corporations under them.
- Financial control: the spending activities of bodies with powers of delegated legislation are control by the government by sending auditors to audit their accounts.
- Give reasons for the control of delegated legislation.
- State 5 merits and 5 demerits of delegated legislation.
Citizenship is the status enjoyed by nationals of a country which entitle them to full legal economic, social and political rights. Citizens therefore entitle to vote and be voted for in his country.
HOW TO ACQUIRE CITIZENSHIP
- Citizenship by birth:any one born in the country in which is parents are citizen automatically becomes a citizen of that country.
- Citizen by descent: in some country, some can become a citizen if he can show that his grandparents are/were citizens of the country.
- Citizen by registration: this is citizenship acquired by registering with the appropriate authority in a country and usually applies to those who which to acquire citizenship by virtue of marriage to a citizen.
- Honorary citizenship: An honorary citizen is one on whom the citizenship of another country is conferred as a mark of honor. Heads of state sometimes acquire this sort of citizenship. Nobel Laureate Wole Soyinka is also a notable example.
- Citizenship by naturalization: this is citizenship acquired by foreigners in another country after they have met some acquirements. Such acquirement differs from one country to another.
- What is naturalization?
- How can a naturalized citizen forfeit his citizenship?
- Define citizenship.
- how can citizenship be acquired?
TOPIC: WAYS OF LOOSING CITIZENSHIP
- If a citizen renounces his citizenship.
- If the citizen is found guilty reasonable felony.
- A citizen could forfeit his acquired citizenship if the government of his country denies him of such right.
- If a naturalized citizen is jailed for more than three years within seven years he acquired the citizenship.
- If the activities pf the citizen are prejudicial to the corporate existence and interest of the country .
DUTIES AND OBLIGATION OF A CITIZEN
- LAW ABIDING: every citizen is expected to obey all the laws of his country including traffic laws irrespective of his position.
- PAYMENT OF TAXES:a good citizen is expected to pay all the taxes due to him as at when due from which government can provide him and others essential services.
- DEFENCE OF THE COUNTRY: a citizen should be prepared to defend his country when it is threatened.
- CIVIC RESPONSIBILITIES:it is also the responsibility of a good citizen to register during registration exercise and vote during elections if qualified to do so.
- ASSISTING THE LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENTS:a good citizen should always be prepared to assist the police and other law enforcement agents in reducing crime rate in the country by giving them useful information.
- Enumerate five ways of losing citizenship.
- What are the duties and obligations of a citizen to a state?
TOPIC: WAYS OF SAFEGUAREDING CITIZEN’S RIGHT
- An independent and impartial judiciary which a citizen can run to for protection whenever his rights are intrigued upon.
- If freedom of the press is guaranteed, the press will fearlessly protect and safeguard the right of a citizen.
- Lack of ethnic prejudice will ensure a citizen’s right to freedom from discrimination on the ground of race.
- An atmosphere of peace and order in a country is a necessary condition for the protection of a citizen’s rights
- Good economic systems ensure a citizen’s rights to education, work and commensurate compensation etc.
LIMITATIONS TO RIGHTS OF A CITIZEN
- A citizen may be denied his right to life if he his condemned to death as a result of murder, armed robbery etc.
- A citizen may be denied some his rights if he is detained by law.
- The laws of slander, libel and sedition limit the right of a citizen to freedom of expression.
- Declaration of dusk to dawn curfew in times of emergency is another condition that may limit the right of a citizen especially freedom of movement.
- The police for the interest of peace and order can ban public assembly, procession and demonstration which will deny a citizen his rights of Assembly and Association.
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN A CITIZEN AND NON-CITIZEN.
- A citizen is a legal member of a country while a non-citizen is not.
- While a citizen owns allegiance to the country; a non-citizen does not enjoy.
- A citizen enjoys full civil and political rights which a non-citizen does not enjoy.
- A citizen enjoys legal protection more than a non-citizen.
- A citizen has the right to contest election for a political office while a non-citizen has no such right.
- What are the differences between a citizen and non- citizen.
- What are the ways of safeguarding citizen’s right.
TOPIC: POLITICAL PARTIES
Political parties may be defined as organized group of people who share similar political opinions, principles, interests and beliefs with the aim of gaining political power and governing the country. PDP, APC, APGA, are political parties in fourth republic of Nigeria.
FEATURES OF POLITICAL PARTIES.
- Political parties main objectives is to contest elections win and govern the country through constitutional means.
- They usually have a manifesto, which is a document listing their intentions and objectives.
- They usually try to show that they are loyal to the electorate, and would serve their interest if voted into power.
- Political parties usually organized membership to reach all corners of the country.
- They usually tends to lean towards a major social- economic ideology, such as capitalism and socialism, which guides their members’ actions , especially when they came to power.
FUNCTIONS OF POLITICAL PARTIES.
- Political parties educate the electorate through campaigns and rallies which stimulate their political awareness.
- They help to arouse the interest of the electorate towards participation in elections.
- They help to ensure political stability through the availability of a pool of their members capable of running the government at any time.
- The manifestoes of any political parties swerve as a ready source from which government policies can be formulated.
- Political parties in power help to provide amenities like electricity, pipe-born water, tarred roads, schools and hospitals.
TYPES OF POLITICAL PARTIES
- Mass parties: mass parties are those whose membership is drawn from all segments of society, including men and women, the rich and the poor. E.g. Labour party, People party.
- Elite party: an elite party also known as cadre party, usually compromises only the wealthy, the professionals and the influential.
- Personality party:a party may be described as a ‘personality’ type when the guiding spirit or leadership is that provided by one man or woman who has attain popularity.
- Religious party: Religious political parties are mainly formed by members of a particular religion. e.g. state of Iraq, Shiites parties and Kurdish party in Iraq.
- Party manifestoes
- Party manifesto refers to the public declaration of principles, policies, purposes and cardinal plans which a political party intends to adopt on all subjects when it comes to power. It includes the aims and objectives of a political party.
THE IMPORTANCE OF A PARTY MANIFESTO
- It gives course of action which the political party will follow in order to succeed.
- The party manifesto is used as a magnetic pull to entice more members and the electorates to support the party.
- Party manifesto is essential because parties want to retain the seat of power.
- The manifesto is what enables the electorates make informed choice among several policies made by parties for their mandate.
- A political party can be assessed based on the extent to which its programmes contained in the party manifesto have been achieved or implemented.
1 a. What is party manifesto?
- Account for the importance of party manifesto.
- list and explain types of political parties.
- State functions of political parties.
TOPIC: PARTY SYSTEM
A party system may be defined as a type of governmental political arrangement in which political parties are permitted to operate for the purposes of forming a government on political party basis.
MERITS OF PARTY SYSTEM AND POLITICAL PARTIES
- The existence of political parties in a country makes democracy possible to thrive.
- Political parties bring people that share similar political opinions, principles, interests, and beliefs on the country’s problem together and provide avenue for the expression of such views.
- The existence of political parties makes peaceful change of government in a country possible.
- A political party helps to stream line divergent public opinions in a country.
- The existence of political parties provides the electorate possible options of choosing good leader.
DEMERITS OF PARTY SYSTEM AND POLITICAL PARTIES
- Political parties paralyze people of a country into different segments which does not make for peace and unity among the people.
- Party system breeds partisan politics which displaces patriotism for party loyalty.
- By selecting candidates who would stand for elections , these candidates are imposed on the electorate thereby depriving them of their choice.
- A lot of public funds are wasted in maintaining political parties, their members and the paraphernalia that go with them.
- Political parties breed nepotism, favoritism and ethnocentrism.
Compare one party system and two party system
Why is two party system adopted in some countries?
TOPIC: PRESSURE GROUP.
A pressure group may be defined as any group of people bond together by some common interests or profession that engage in some activities to influence government policies to their own advantage. Pressure groups are not interested in direct governance or in contesting elections. E.g. Nigerian Union of Teachers, Nigerian Bar Association, Market Women Association etc.
TYPES OF PRESSURE GROUP
- Economic pressure groups:These pressure groups focus on the well-being of their member. e.g. Manufacturers Association, NACCIMA etc.
- Professional or occupational pressure groups:these are pressure groups embracing workers of the same occupation who try to protect their works. E.g. Nigerian Medical Association, Nigerian Bar Association, Nigerian Union Of Teachers etc.
- Religious pressure groups: these are pressure groups that belong to the same religion and which to influence government decisions in favour of their beliefs or members. e.g. Christian Association of Nigeria, Supreme Council for Islamic Affairs.
- Promotional groups: these are pressure groups that promote some causes which may not directly their members. E.g. Human Right Groups and the Red cross.
- Anomic pressure groups: these are interest groups that use violence, demonstrations, arson, assassination, strikes and the like in expressing their aims and objectives. Street demonstrators and student riot groups are examples.
FUNCTIONS OF PRESSURE GROUPS.
- Pressure groups try to make the government more attentive to the needs of the people.
- Pressure groups provide specialized and expert information to the government on their interest.
- They help to educate their members and the whole society on their fundamental human and political rights.
- They promote and protect the interest of their members. E.g. Academic Staff Union of Universities (ASUU) on special scale for its members.
- They promote certain general welfare services. E.g. The Civil Liberties Organization (CLO) offers the legal services in court.
MEANS ADOPTED BY PRESSURE GROUPS TO ACHIEVE THEIR AIMS.
- Strikes and boycotts: Occupational pressure groups may employ strikes and boycotts to achieve their aims where other means fail.
- Lobbying: This involves representatives of pressure groups trying to persuade legislators to pass laws that are favourable to their members.
- Publicity campaigns: Pressure groups organized intensive campaigns through meetings, rallies, hose-to-house campaigns, posters, handbills, stickers and conferences to attract public support and get their aims achieved.
- Mass media: Pressure groups advertise and sponsor programmes on the radio, television and in newspapers to convince the citizenry.
- Letters and petitions : Pressure groups write letters of information and complaint to officials of the legislative or executive arm of the government to try to convince them of their view point.
1a. Define pressure groups
1b. List types of pressure groups.
2.Account for the means adopted by pressure groups to achieve their aims.
TOPIC: FACTORS THAT LIMIT THE SUCCESS OF PRESSURE GROUPS
- Lack of funds: shortage of funds limit the operations of pressure groups.
- Ineffective leadership: a week and effective leader debars a pressure group from achieving its aim and objectives.
- Poor organization: pressure groups that are not well organized will not be able to achieve their aims and objectives.
- Method of operation: pressure groups that are militant tend to achieve their aims and objectives faster than their counterparts that employ only negotiations.
- Instability of government: pressure groups get confused about who to address and what objectives to pursue in a situation of political instability due to frequent change of government and policy.
COMPARISON BETWEEN POLITICAL PARTIES AND PRESSURE GROUPS.
- Both organizations are involved in bringing together interests of different segments of the society.
- Both organizations are politically vital for a democratic polity.
- Political parties are usually well-organized with defined leadership structures, but most pressure groups are not.
- Pressure groups may be present and active in political parties while the political affiliations and interests of members are of no concern to pressure groups.
What are the dangers posed by the activities of pressure group?
State the differences between political parties and pressure group
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