SS2 English Lesson Note (Second Term) 2024

The lesson note for SS2 English second term is now available for Tutors, parents, guardians and students who have been searching for an accurate and updated 2024 note.

Please note that the second term lesson note is curled out from the approved scheme of work for Senior Secondary school. So you can do your verification as well and compare the second term lesson note for SS2 English as seen on the free PDF file made available towards the end of this post.

SS2 English Lesson Note (Second Term) [year] 1

The SS2 English lesson note for second term is in line with the 2024 SS2 English scheme of work for the term. This means the SS2 English lesson note is tailored towards achieving the aim and objective for the subject as mandated by the ministry of education.

SS2 English Second Term Lesson Note 2024

SS2 SECOND TERM ENGLISH LANGUAGE NOTE OF LESSON

WEEK ONE: – REVISION AND GRAMMAR: THE USE OF THE POSSESSIVE APOSTROPHE

WEEK TWO: – GRAMMAR: PUNCTUATION MARK AND VOCABULARY: WORDS ASSOCIATED WITH PRESS

WEEK THREE: – SPEECH WORK: INTONATION, GRAMMAR: SENTENCE TYPES AND COMPOSITION: LETTER OF COMPLAINT

WEEK FOUR: – SPEECH WORK: FALLING INTONATION, VOCABULARY: WORDS ASSOCIATED WITH THE ENVIRONMENT AND COMPOSITION: LETTER TO A FRIEND IN ANOTHER TOWN

WEEK FIVE: – GRAMMAR: PERSONAL AND RELATIVE PRONOUNS

WEEK SIX & SEVEN: – {SPEECH WORK: RISING INTONATION, GRAMMAR: SEQUENCE OF TENSES AND VOCABULARY: WORDS ASSOCIATED WITH NATION BUILDING

WEEK EIGHT: – SPEECH WORK: COMPARISON OF /ʧ/, /Ʃ/, /ʤ/ AND /Ʒ/, GRAMMAR; PHRASAL VERBS WITH MORE THAN ONE PARTICLE AND VOCABULARY: WORDS ASSOCIATED WITH TECHNOLOGY

WEEK NINE: – GRAMMAR: ACTIVE AND PASSIVE SENTENCES AND VOCABULARY: WORDS ASSOCIATED WITH CULTURAL ENTERTAINMENT

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

WEEK 1

Week 1

 

OVERVIEW:

  • GRAMMAR

 

 

GRAMMAR: THE USE OF POSSESSIVE APOSTROPHE

OBJECTIVES:

By the end of this lesson, students should be able to:

  • Explain the apostrophe, and its uses
  • State the rules that guide the use of the apostrophe, when used to show possession.

INTRODUCTION:

The apostrophe is one of the important punctuation marks in the English Language, which is used to serve two basic functions, which are:

  • To show possession
  • To show contraction

 

The apostrophe is used to show possession and contraction when writing. However, there are several rules that guide the usage of the apostrophe, when used to show possession, they are:

  1. Use an apostrophe + letter “s” to show that a person or thing owns something. That is, to show possession.

For example Bola’s bag, The Cat’s Food, Roli’s house, etc.

 

  1. If a word is singular, and it ends with the letter “s”, only add an apostrophe, without another “s”, to show possession.

For example Lois’ shoes, Maris’ phone, etc.

 

  1. If a word is plural and ends in “s”, only add an apostrophe, without another “s”, to show possession.

For example The Smiths’ Car, The Johnsons’ Cattle, The Lawyers’ Party

 

  1. If a plural noun does not end in the letter “s”, add an apostrophe + “s”, to show possession.

For example The Women’s Meeting, The Children’s toys.

 

SUMMARY:

In showing possession, an apostrophe and the letter “s” should be added to the end of a word. But if the letter “s” ends the word, or it is a plural word that ends with “s”, then only an apostrophe is added.

ASSESSMENT:

Put apostrophe wherever they are needed in the following sentences:

  1. This is my mother bag.
  2. The Kelvins house is down the street
  3. Lois brother is my teacher
  4. Today is Fathers Day
  5. Shola pen is on the table
  6. The men wives are in the sitting room.

 

WEEK 2

Week 2

OVERVIEW:

  • GRAMMAR
  • VOCABULARY

GRAMMAR: PUNCTUATION MARKS

OBJECTIVES:

By the end of this lesson, students should be able to:

  • Define punctuation marks, with examples
  • Explain the different punctuation marks, and their function

INTRODUCTION:

Punctuation marks are an important aspect of writing that make our writing understandable and clear. Different punctuation marks give a different meaning to a sentence.

Example:

I am going home.

I am going home?

…I am going home.

The three sentences above, though containing the same group of words in the same arrangement, however, they communicate different meanings because of the different punctuation marks used with each of them.

The first sentence is a statement. The second sentence is a question. While for the third sentence, the punctuation mark used shows that there is something before the sentence, which has been omitted.

Question Mark: The question mark is used to indicate questions. It can be used in the following ways:

  • At the end of a question.

Examples:

Is she your sister?

Who is at the door?

  • At the end of questioning statements

Examples:

She is here already?

Did they run away?

The Comma: The comma is often overused and abused. It is a tricky punctuation mark and should be used only when necessary. The comma is used to indicate a shorter pause, than when a full stop is used.

The comma can be used in the following ways:

  • The comma can be used to separate items in a list:

Example:

I want to buy a red shoe, two books, a bag and four dresses.

She loves plantain, fish and egg.

  • The comma is also used in question tags, to separate the statement from the tag.

Example:

She has gone home, hasn’t she?

He loves her, doesn’t he?

They don’t stay in Abuja, do they?

The Full Stop: This is also known as period and it is used to indicate a long stop than the comma is used to indicate. It can be used in the following ways:

  • The full stop is used to show that a statement has ended.

Example: I am going home today.

That is my sister.

  • The full stop is also used for abbreviations.

Example: Mr Femi is the new bank manager.

P.H.C.N has interrupted the power supply.

  • The full stop is also used in between numbers, to show decimal.

Examples:

The answer is 14.22s

The Apostrophe: This is a punctuation mark commonly used in writing, and it can be used in the following ways:

  • To show possession:

Examples:

This is my mother’s car

His friend’s book was stolen.

  • To show the omission of letters or contraction:

Examples:

He doesn’t go home every weekend.

It’s a whole lot of work

 

The colon: This is another punctuation mark that also helps us in writing, and it can be used in the following ways:

  • To introduce a list of items:

Examples:

The following items are in the bag: book, pens, wristwatch, and a pair of shoes.

  • It is also used within time expressions, to separate hour from minutes.

Example: It is 12:20 pm.

She was here by 06:10 pm.

Semi-colon: This is a tricky punctuation mark that should be carefully used in writing. It can be used in the following ways:

  • To join two sentences and independent clauses, to show the relationship between them.

Example:

I think we can leave now; the weather looks better.

She is here already; we would leave in ten minutes.

  • To assemble detailed or serial lists.

Examples:

The summit would take place in four locations: Lagos; Nigeria, New Delhi; India, Toronto; Canada, Beijing; China.

Inverted Commas: This is also known as quotation marks. It could either be double: “ ” or single ‘ ’. It is used in the following ways:

  • To quote a direct statement or speech made by someone, from its beginning to the end.

Examples:

“I would be travelling by air next week”, Stephen said.

“No one must leave this house” her father ordered.

  • To mark out a certain word or phrase in a sentence, to lay emphasis on it.

Examples:

She and her father are in a “good” relationship.

SUMMARY:

The Punctuation marks in the English Language are very important, as they give full meaning to sentences of different kinds.

ASSESSMENT:

Mention five punctuation marks, and list three functions for each of them.

 

REGISTER: WORDS ASSOCIATED WITH THE PRESS

The press refers to people who work for newspapers, magazines, television or radio stations, alongside the various activities they carry out. The following are words that are associated with the Press.

WordMeaning
JournalistA journalist is a person who is trained to investigate and gather information, which is published in newspapers, presented on television and radio stations, etc.
EditorAn editor is the head of a press team, who oversees the publication of news, to be published to the public
PublicistA publicist is a person who protects the public image of his clients, by sending a good press release to journalists, about their clients.
NewspapersThis is a printed publication, usually released daily or weekly, which contains news, articles, advertisements, etc.
NewscasterA newscaster is a person who presents or casts news report on television and radio stations.
Press CorpsPress corps is a group of reporters, working for different news houses, who are in a particular place to cover important news or event.
EditorialThis is an article written by a publisher or senior editorial officer of a newspaper or magazine. It is usually published on the editorial page of newspapers.
CorrespondentThis is a type of journalist who is usually present at the scene of an incident, and that gives the news report to a newspaper, usually from a remote, far location.
PhotojournalismPhotojournalism is a form of journalism, in which photos/images/pictures are used to tell news stories.
TabloidThis is a sensational kind of journalism that focuses on celebrity gossips, etc. to rouse public interest and excitement.
Yellow JournalismThis has to do with using exaggerated headlines in news reports, to attract readers. It is not usually well researched and does not give a full report about an incident.
ManuscriptA manuscript is handwritten news that is yet to be published.
MisprintThis is an error made in a news report
Gag writingThis is a comic kind of news, written by a gag writer.
LedeThis is the first sentence of a news report that summarizes the important information contained in the body of the news report.

 

 

WEEK 3

Week 3

OVERVIEW:

  • SPEECH WORK
  • GRAMMAR
  • COMPOSITION

SPEECH WORK: INTONATION

INTONATION USED TO EXPRESS EXCLAMATION

OBJECTIVES:

By the end of this lesson, students should be able to:

  • Explain intonation
  • Identify and explain the intonation, used to express exclamation

INTRODUCTION:

Intonation is an aspect of language that is closely related to Stress. It is used to show the attitude and emotion of speakers.

Intonation is a variation in the pitch level of one’s voice, when speaking, or during articulation. It refers to how the voice rises, and falls, during a speech, in order to communicate different meanings, in expressions of different kinds.

 

TYPES OF INTONATION

There are four types of intonation that are used when speaking. They are:

  • The Rising Intonation
  • The Falling Intonation
  • The Rise-fall Intonation
  • The Fall-rise Intonation

THE FALLING INTONATION

The falling intonation is the intonation used to express exclamation, to show surprise and disbelief.

Exclamations usually end on a falling tone, known as the exclamatory fall, used to show different kinds of emotions of Anger, Surprise, Excitement, etc.

Examples include:

  1. What a brilliant idea!
  2. What a day!
  3. Really?!
  4. Welcome to Lagos!
  5. How awful of them!

SUMMARY:

The falling tone is used in exclamatory sentences, to show emotions of different kinds.

ASSESSMENT:

Write down ten exclamatory sentences, reflecting surprise, excitement, anger, etc.

GRAMMAR: SENTENCE TYPES

OBJECTIVES:

By the end of this lesson, students should be able to:

  • Explain sentence and state its different types
  • Explain the different types of sentences, with examples.

INTRODUCTION:

A sentence is a group of words that expresses a complete idea or thought. It usually ends with a full stop, question mark or exclamation mark; to show a statement, question or command and exclamation respectively.

Sentences are classified according to their function and structure.

Sentence Types according to their Functions include:

  1. Declarative Sentence
  2. Interrogatory Sentence
  3. Imperative Sentence
  4. Exclamatory Sentence

Declarative Sentence: This is a kind of sentence used to make a statement, or express an idea or thought. A declarative sentence is used to declare an idea. It is usually ended with a full stop or period.

Examples:

  1. I am going home tomorrow.
  2. That is her brother.
  3. The man would be here soon.

Interrogatory Sentence: This is a kind of sentence that is used to ask a question. It interrogates, and it usually ends with a question mark.

Examples:

  1. What is your name?
  2. How did you get here?
  3. Is her brother at the office?

 

Imperative Sentence: This is used to give commands or orders. It ends with an exclamation mark.

Examples:

  1. Go home!
  2. Leave the ball!
  3. Close the windows!

Exclamatory Sentence: This is used to exclaim, and express emotions of surprise, anger, excitement, etc.  It ends with an exclamation mark too, to show emotion.

Examples:

  1. Wow!
  2. What a pleasant surprise!
  3. I just won a scholarship!

SUMMARY:

Sentences are categorized according to their functions, and they have been explained above.

ASSESSMENT:

Read the following sentences and determine the type of sentences they are, in term of function:

  1. They would be here tomorrow.
  2. Where is your bag?
  3. Leave here now!
  4. This is good news!
  5. This is my sister.
  6. Do I have to see him?

COMPOSITION: FORMAL LETTER

LETTER OF COMPLAINT

OBJECTIVES:

By the end of this lesson, students should be able to:

  • Explain what a letter of complaint is
  • Write a sample letter of complaint

INTRODUCTION:

A letter of complaint is a kind of formal letter that is written to the concerned person or authority, to lodge a complaint, or express dissatisfaction about something. It is a form of a formal letter that is written to express one’s grievances over unfavourable conditions, products, services, etc.

A letter of complaint is usually written to people in places of authority, who can influence changes in the condition of things in a place. It can be written to School Principals, Local Government Chairpersons, Governors, Head Teachers, etc.

When writing a letter of complaint, it is important to be polite, despite your frustration about the condition of things. Simply express your dissatisfaction in a pleasant, and polite manner, and ask that changes be made to improve things

A LETTER OF COMPLAINT TO MY SCHOOL PRINCIPAL ABOUT THE STATE OF THE SCHOOL LIBRARY

 

5, Doris Street,

Palm Groove,

Lagos State.

7th January 2021.

The Principal,

Top-Mark Group of Schools,

Palm Groove, Lagos State.

P.O. BOX 4959

Dear Sir,

LETTER OF COMPLAINT ABOUT THE STATE OF THE SCHOOL LIBRARY

Good day, sir. My name is Glory Olufemi, an SSS2 student of Top-Mark Group of Schools, Palm Groove. I am writing this letter to lodge a complaint about the current state of the school library, which I would love you to pay attention to.

The school library is in a bad condition, as most of the books needed by students for use are not available, and even the ones that are available are outdated. This has caused a lot of hindrance in students’ learning process, as we have not been able to read more on topics taught in the classroom.

Also, some of the chairs and tables in the library are in bad conditions, as they are broken, and are not good for use any longer. Hence, students rarely visit the library, since they are no comfortable seats for them to use.

And lastly, there is low ventilation in the library, as the windows fitted in, do not allow enough air to penetrate into the place. This also makes reading there, very uncomfortable and inconvenient for students.

Thank you, sir, for your hard work and dedication to making the school a citadel of excellence. Hence, I am sure that this letter would stir you to do something about the complaints made therein, to improve the state of things.

Thank you very much.

Yours faithfully,

Glory Olufemi.

 

WEEK 4

Week 4

OVERVIEW:

  • SPEECH WORK
  • VOCABULARY
  • COMPOSITION

 

 

SPEECH WORK: INTONATION

FALLING INTONATION STATEMENTS REALIZATION

OBJECTIVES:

By the end of this class, students should be able to:

  • Explain intonation, and mention its types
  • Explain falling tone, and mention its statements realization

INTRODUCTION:

Intonation is an aspect of language that is closely related to Stress. It is used to show the attitude and emotion of speakers.

Intonation is a variation in the pitch level of one’s voice, when speaking, or during articulation. It refers to how the voice rises, and falls, during a speech, in order to communicate different meanings, in expressions of different kinds.

TYPES OF INTONATION

There are four types of intonation, which are used when speaking. They are:

  • The Rising Intonation
  • The Falling Intonation
  • The Rise-fall Intonation
  • The Fall-rise Intonation

THE FALLING INTONATION

The Falling Intonation is the kind of intonation that ends a statement on a falling pitch. It is used in Statements, Commands, WH-Questions, Confirmatory question tags, and Exclamations.

Statements:

  1. They are here.
  2. Patrick is my younger brother.
  3. I just got a call from my mum.

Commands:

  1. Go home now!
  2. Leave that place!
  3. Wash those plates right away!

WH-Questions:

  1. What is your name?
  2. Where is your mother?
  3. When would your friend come back?

Confirmatory question tags:

  1. She isn’t here, is she?
  2. They haven’t left, have they?
  3. He hasn’t washed the car, has he?

Exclamations:

  1. What a day!
  2. How kind of you!
  3. This is so beautiful!

SUMMARY:

The falling intonation is used to realize statements of different kinds as stated above: statements, commands, WH-questions, confirmatory question tags and exclamations.

ASSESSMENT:

Write ten statements, in which the falling intonation is realized.

 

 

VOCABULARY: WORDS ASSOCIATED WITH ENVIRONMENT

This refers to the surrounding where human, animals and plants exist. Words associated with the environment would be stated, alongside their meanings.

WORDSMEANINGS
AtmosphereThis is the part of the earth that contains air.
BiosphereThis is the part of the earth, where living beings can live and survive in
EcologyThis has to do with how organisms interact with each other, and with their environment
ClimateThis is the average weather condition in a given area, over a period of time.
AfforestationThis is the planting of trees in the environment, to replace the ones that have been cut down
AirAir is the mixture of nitrogen, oxygen, and other gases that surround the earth, and forms the atmosphere
AquiferThis is a layer of rock or sand that absorbs or retains water
ConservationThis has to do with preserving the lives of animal, plants and other living organisms in the environment.
BiodiversityThis has to do with the existence of different kinds of plants and animals in the environment.
DeforestationThis is the cutting down of trees for commercial and industrial uses.
PollutionThis is the contamination of the environment with impurities of various form. There are air, water, land and noise pollution.
CompostThis is a decayed mixture of plants, used to improve the quality of soil in the environment.
OasisThis is a part of a desert, where there is water
DesertThis is a part of the environment that is dry, arid and has no water, rain, trees or any living organism. They are usually in hot regions.
ErosionThis is the washing away of the uppermost part of the earth, by rain.
Fossil FuelThis is the kind of fuel that is formed from the earth, from dead plants and animals.

COMPOSITION: INFORMAL LETTER

A LETTER TO A FRIEND IN ANOTHER TOWN

5, Allay Street,

Ikeja,

Lagos State.

5th May 2020

Dear Folake,

How are you doing? I hope everyone is doing well over there too? I am really sorry not to have written to you ever since you moved to Abuja, I apologize deeply for that.

Ever since you moved to Abuja, I have not found a close friend to relate with, as I related with you. I miss you so much. A lot of things have happened ever since you left, and I would love to gist you about some of them.

To start with, I now attend a new school at Ikeja, and I am really learning well in this new school, as we have more facilities that aid learning than they have in my previous school.

To add to, this new school gives students the opportunities to go for inter-school competitions, where we met with other schools, to compete in academics, sports, etc.

Also, I won a scholarship from the Lagos State Government last year, and the government has been the one paying my school fees, ever since I moved to this new school.

Finally, my oldest sister, Sister Stephanie would be getting married in six months, and I would love you to attend. My dad already sent the invitation card to your dad, and he is likely to attend.

I hope you are also doing well over there? Relay my greetings to your parents and siblings. Also, don’t forget to reply to this letter, as soon as you receive it.

Yours sincerely,

Florence.

WEEK 5

Week 5

 

OVERVIEW:

  • GRAMMAR

 

 

GRAMMAR: PRONOUN

PERSONAL AND RELATIVE PRONOUNS

OBJECTIVES:

By the end of this lesson, students should be able to:

  • Explain pronouns
  • Explain personal pronoun and relative pronoun

 

INTRODUCTION:

Pronouns are words used instead of nouns, to avoid repetition.

Example:

Jane loves to write. Jane writes for a blog, and the owner of the blog pays Jane monthly, for writing. Jane loves Jane’s job.

In the sentence above, the noun “Jane” is written five times, and it makes it repetitive and unnatural. However, when the appropriate pronoun is used to replace the noun, it sounds better.

Example:

Jane loves to write. She writes for a blog, and the owner of the blog pays her monthly, for writing. She loves her job.

In this new statement, the noun “Jane” has been replaced with “she and her”, and the statement is still grammatical and correct.

 

There are different types of pronouns in the English Language, they are:

  • Personal Pronoun
  • Relative Pronoun
  • Demonstrative Pronoun
  • Indefinite Pronoun
  • Possessive Pronoun
  • Interrogative Pronoun

PERSONAL PRONOUN

Personal pronouns are the pronouns, used to replace personal nouns in a sentence, to avoid repetition.  They help to show person, gender, number and case.

Examples of Personal Pronouns are I, He, She, We, It, They, Me, Them, etc.

Personal Pronouns are divided into subject and object category.

Subject Category: I, She, He, You, We, They, It

Object Category: Me, Her, Him, You, Us, Them, It.

Personal Pronouns are also divided into three cases, such as:

The First Person: I, We

The Second Person: You

The Third Person: She, He, They, It

Examples:

  1. Folake is my childhood friend. Shelives down the street
  2. My name is Ebunoluwa. Iam an SSS 2 student of Walls of Joy High School.
  3. Stephen is Sandra’s friend. Theyattend the same school.
  4. Weare going to the zoo tomorrow.
  5. The dog loves chocolate. Itate four bars last night.

RELATIVE PRONOUN

This is the kind of pronoun, which introduces a dependent or relative clause, and connects it to an independent clause. They are used in complex sentences to join a dependent clause to an independent clause.

There are different relative pronouns in the English Language, which are: which, what, who, how, whom, when, that.

And the type of relative pronoun used in sentences depends on the noun being referred to.

Who: This is used to refer to a person; the subject of the sentence.

Whom: This is used to refer to a person; the object of the sentence.

Which: This is used to refer to an animal or thing.

What: This is used for non-living things.

That- This is used for a person, animal or thing.

Examples:

  1. The boy whose pen I borrowed is here
  2. The girl who bought the bag has collected it
  3. That is the woman that built the house
  4. The dog which gave birth is sleeping

 

SUMMARY:

Pronouns are used to replace nouns in a sentence to avoid repetition. They are also used to refer to a noun, previously stated in the sentence.

 

ASSESSMENT:

List five examples of the personal pronoun and relative pronoun

Use the above examples in sentences.

 

WEEK 6 & 7

 

OVERVIEW

  • SPEECH WORK
  • STRUCTURE
  • VOCABULARY

 

 

SPEECH WORK: RISING INTONATION

 

OBJECTIVES:

By the end of this lesson, students should be able to:

  • Explain intonation, and state its types
  • Explain Rising Intonation, with examples

 

INTRODUCTION:

Intonation is an aspect of language that is closely related to Stress. It is used to show the attitude and emotion of speakers.

Intonation is a variation in the pitch level of one’s voice, when speaking, or during articulation. It refers to how the voice rises, and falls, during a speech, in order to communicate different meanings, in expressions of different kinds.

 

TYPES OF INTONATION

There are four types of intonation, which are used when speaking. They are:

  • The Rising Intonation
  • The Falling Intonation
  • The Rise-fall Intonation
  • The Fall-rise Intonation

 

RISING INTONATION

The Rising Intonation is the kind of intonation that ends a statement, on a rising pitch. It is used in Yes/No Questions and Question tags; which are actual questions.

 

Yes/No Questions:

  1. Are you going home tomorrow?
  2. Is your mother in the house?
  3. Has she returned the book?

 

Question Tags:

  1. Your interview is tomorrow, isn’t it?
  2. The food is delicious, isn’t it?
  3. They have travelled, haven’t they?

 

SUMMARY:

The rising intonation is used to ask yes/no questions and also in question tags.

 

ASSESSMENT:

Write five yes/no questions and five-question tags, to reflect the rising intonation.

 

 

STRUCTURE: INTRODUCTION TO SEQUENCE OF TENSES

OBJECTIVES:

By the end of this lesson, students should be able to:

  • Explain what sequence of tenses are
  • State the rules guiding the sequence of tenses

INTRODUCTION:

A sequence of tense refers to when the verb of a subordinate clause agrees with the verb of the main clause, in terms of tense.

 

A sequence of tenses has to do with the verb of a subordinate or dependent clause, agreeing with the verb of an independent or principal clause in terms of tense, when they occur in a sentence, usually in a complex sentence.

Thus, the tense of the verb in the independent clause determines the tense of the verb in the dependent or subordinate clause. It helps to ensure coherence in time expression.

In a sequence of tense, the past must come before the present, and the present must come before the future.

 

RULES THAT GUIDE THE USE OF SEQUENCE OF TENSES

There are some rules guiding the use of a sequence of tenses in sentences, to achieve coherence in time expressions.

Rule 1: If the verb in the independent clause is in the past tense, then the verb in the dependent clause must also be in the past tense form.

Examples:

  1. travelledlast weekend after I spoke with her
  2. She walkedup to him, then they exchanged
  3. They wentto the party after their father permitted
  4. He wassleeping, when she walked

In the sentences above, the verbs in the independent clauses are in the past tense form, as well as the verbs in the dependent clauses.

 

Rule 2: If the verb in the independent clause is in the present or future tense, the tense in the dependent clause can be in any form, based on what is to be said.

Examples:

  1. shall be travellingtomorrow if he comes here today.
  2. knowthat he made up that story
  3. She will thinkthat they worked

In the sentences above, the verbs in the independent clauses are either in the present tense or future tense, while the verb in the subordinate clauses differs, depending on was to be said.

 

Rule 3: In the case of a universal truth being stated in a dependent clause, the dependent clause can have its verb in the present tense, even if the independent clause has its verb in the past tense.

Examples:

  1. The children were taughtthat honesty is the best policy
  2. She gavebirth after her menopause, a sure proof that God is
  3. We learntfrom reading books, that the earth revolves around the sun.

In the sentences above, the verbs in the dependent clauses, which state a universal truth are in the present tense. While the verbs in the independent clauses are in the past tense.

 

SUMMARY:

A sequence of tenses is used to ensure coherence in sentences.

 

ASSESSMENT:

Write out ten complex sentences, following the rules of the sequence of tenses, as stated above.

 

 

VOCABULARY: WORDS ASSOCIATED WITH NATION-BUILDING

Here, words associated with Nation Building, as extracted from newspapers and magazines, would be listed and explained.

 

WordsMeaning
ElectionThis is the process by which the citizens of a nation elect or choose their leaders, through a voting system.
DiplomacyThis is the process of influencing the decisions of a nation, through negotiation and dialogue, not by using violence.
TaxationThis has to do with the compulsory financial charge imposed by the government on its citizens.
ConfederationThis has to do with the coming together of a group of states, to form a unit, with power vested in the central.
National FlagThis is one of the very significant symbols of a nation. Nigeria’s national flag has two colours, which are; green and white.
GovernmentThis refers to the group of people who have the power to rule or govern a nation, or state, or local government area.
PatriotA patriot is a person who is loyal to his country and readily defends it at all times.
VotersVoters are people who are eligible to vote, in order to elect government officials in a nation.
Political partyThis is an organization of people, who come together to appoint candidates to contest in a nation’s election.
ConstitutionConstitution refers to the body of rules and regulations that govern a nation.
National DevelopmentThis has to do with an increase in the growth and progress of a nation, in all sectors.
DemocracyThis is a system of government, whereby the citizens have the right to elect their representatives in the government, by voting.
Political AspirantThis is a person who competes in an election, to be voted into a government position.
JudiciaryThis is the arm of government that interprets the law of the country and give judicial decrees.

 

 

 

WEEK 8

OVERVIEW

  • SPEECH WORK
  • GRAMMAR
  • VOCABULARY

 

 

SPEECH WORK: COMPARING SOUNDS: /ʧ/ & /ʃ/ AND /ʤ/ & /ʒ/

OBJECTIVES:

By the end of this lesson, students should be able to:

  • Describe consonant sound /ʧ/, /ʃ/, /ʤ/ and /ʒ/
  • State examples of words with the sounds stated above

INTRODUCTION:

Consonant sounds are sounds that are produced with partial or total obstruction in the flow of air. There are 24 consonant sounds in the English Language.

The /ʧ/ and /ʃ/, /ʤ/ and /ʒ/ sounds are palatal sounds.

 

THE /ʧ/ AND /ʃ/ SOUNDS

The /ʧ/ sound is known as the voiceless affricate palatal sound. It is produced with a complete blockage of the air coming from the mouth, which is later released.

And during the course of pronunciation, the tongue is spread over the hard palate and the alveolar ridge. It is a voiceless sound, hence there is no vibration in the vocal cords during its pronunciation.

Examples of words with the /ʧ/ sound are chair, chief, charity, etc.

The /ʧ/ sound appears in words in form of letters “ch”

  • ch- Teacher, Choose, Chaste

 

The /ʃ/ sound is known as the voiceless palate-alveolar fricative. It is produced when the front part of the tongue is slightly moved towards the hard palate, and the tip of the tongue is behind the alveolar ridge. It is a voiceless sound, as the vocal cords do not vibrate when it is produced.

Examples of words with the sound /ʃ/ are shoe, shop, shell, etc.

The /ʃ/ sound appears in words in form of letters such as:

  • sh- shirt, shelf, sheet, delish
  • c- special, racial,
  • ss- mission, passionate
  • t- action, sanction, ration

The /ʧ/ and /ʃ/ sounds both have their voicing as voiceless.

 

THE /ʤ/ AND /ʒ/ SOUNDS

The /ʤ/ sound is known as the voiced palatal affricate sound. It is produced with a complete blockage of the airstream, just like the voiceless palatal affricate sound described above. And during the course of pronunciation, the tongue is spread over the hard palate and the alveolar ridge.

Examples of words with the /ʤ/ sound are soldier, ridge, jerk, etc.

The ʤ/ sound appears in words in form of letters such as:

  • j- jest, jar,  jug
  • g- change, sponge, hinge

 

The /ʒ/ sound is known as the voiced palate-alveolar fricative. It is produced in the same way as the voiceless palate-alveolar fricative sound, as described above, the only difference is that, in producing the sound /ʒ/, which is a voiced sound, the vocal cords vibrate.

Examples of words with the sound /ʒ/ are vision, decision,

The /ʒ/ sound appears in words in form of letters such as:

  • s- usual, measure, leisure, pleasure
  • g- genre

The /ʤ/ and /ʒ/ sounds are both voiced sounds.

 

SUMMARY:

The /ʧ/ /ʃ/ /ʤ/ and /ʒ/ sounds have been described, with examples

 

ASSESSMENT

Write out ten words each that carry the /ʧ/ /ʃ/ /ʤ/ and /ʒ/ sounds.

 

 

STRUCTURE: PHRASAL VERBS WITH MORE THAN ONE PARTICLE

OBJECTIVES:

By the end of this lesson, students should be able to:

  • Explain what phrasal verbs are
  • List phrasal verbs with more than one particle, and use them in meaningful sentences

INTRODUCTION:

A phrase is a group of words without a finite verb. A finite verb is a verb that shows agreement with the subject in terms of tense, they are also known as main verbs.

 

Examples of a finite verb are: wash, work, run, eat, etc. They depict action and can reflect agreement with their subject in terms of number and tense.

 

A phrase has no finite verb; hence, it does not give any meaning on its own. It is a unit in grammar that is usually part of a clause or sentence.

There are different types of phrases, which are:

  • Noun phrase
  • Verbal Phrase
  • Prepositional phrase

 

A verb is a word that depicts action, state of being or occurrence. It is an important part of a sentence that tells the action performed by the subject.

Examples of verbs are: Come, Go, Sleep, Work, Dance, Rush, Fall, Sit, Walk, Run, etc.

There are different kinds of verbs, such as action verb, auxiliary verb. Verbs can also be expressed in a tense form, transitive or intransitive form, number, aspect, voice, etc.

A phrasal verb is a group of words that acts as a verb but consists of a verb and either an adverb or a preposition, or both of them. The adverb and preposition are known as particles; adverbial particles and prepositional particles.

The structure of a phrasal verb is:

Verb + Adverb

Verb + Preposition

Verb + Adverb + Preposition.

A phrasal verb can take any of those forms in a sentence. However, in this lesson, we would be learning about phrasal verbs with more than one article.

Examples of these Phrasal verbs are: put in for, get away with, walk away with, come up with, feel up to, get along with, make up for, look forward to, run out of, stand up for, etc.

 

Examples:

  • The winner of the debate competition walked away with#100,000.
  • He put in forthe role of an accountant, at the firm.
  • The thieves would not get away withtheir crime.
  • They came up witha fantastic idea for the surprise party.
  • I don’t feel up tothe task right now.
  • They would get along witheach other, with time.
  • look forward toseeing you tomorrow.
  • We have run out of cooking oil.
  • He stood up forhis sister, in the presence of the bullies.

The phrasal verbs used in the sentences above contain two particles and communicate different messages.

 

SUMMARY:

Phrasal verbs contain a verb, and other particles, which could either be an adverb or preposition, or both, in one phrasal verb.

 

ASSESSMENT:

Make sentences with the following phrasal verbs:

Watch out for, Pull out of, Move on to, Catch up with, Add up to, Look up to, Go down with, Live up to, Look down on, Made up with.

  

 

VOCABULARY: TECHNOLOGY

Technology is the application of scientific knowledge for practical purposes. Here, words associated with the technology would be listed and explained.

 

WordsMeaning
RoboticsThis has to do with the use of science and technology to create machines, known as robots, which can assist humans.
InternetThis is a global wide area network that connects computers around the world.
EngineeringThis is the aspect of science and technology that deals with the design, structure and building of engines and machines.
BiometricsThis is the use of individual unique characteristics for identification purposes.
Artificial IntelligenceThis is the intelligence displayed by machines, that make them think and act like humans.
ComputerThis is an electronic device that is used to process data and produce information.
TelecommunicationThis is the aspect of technology that has to do with passing information, via electronic means.
ForensicThis is the application of science and technological means, to investigate a crime.
Data ScienceThis has to do with the extraction of knowledge from a wide range of structured and unstructured data to apply the knowledge to various application domains.
BlockchainThis is a digital ledger that records financial transactions.
FintechThis is a combination of the words: Finance and Technology. It has to do with using technology to deliver financial products and services
CyberspaceThis has to do with a widespread of interconnected digital technology
AstronauticsThis has to do with travelling beyond the Earth, to outer space.
EdTechThis is fully known as Educational Technology. It involves the use of technological devices to carry out educational procedures.

 

 

 

WEEK 9

GRAMMAR: ACTIVE AND PASSIVE SENTENCE

OBJECTIVES:

By the end of this lesson, students should be able to:

  • Explain active and passive voices
  • Give examples of sentences in the active and passive voice
  • Change sentences from the active voice to the passive voice

INTRODUCTION:

The verb has five properties, namely: Voice, Mood, Tense, Person, and Number

Active voice in a sentence means that the subject performed an action. Here, it is stated clearly who did what. Active voice helps with clarity and precision, as it shows clearly who the performer of an action is. Sentences in the active voice have a strong, direct and clear tone.

The structure for a sentence in the active voice is:

Subject + Verb + Object

Examples of sentences in the active voice are:

  • David created the mobile application
  • She used the laptop.
  • UN uphold the fundamental human rights of everyone

In the above examples, the subject of each sentence is clear as they are projected as the performers of the actions.

 

Passive Voice: Passive Voice in a sentence means that the subject is acted upon by the verb. Here, the position of the subject and object is switched, to place emphasis on the results of the subject’s action.

Also, passive voice is used to vary sentence structure, as well as in situations, where the reader is aware of who the performer of the action is. The structure of a sentence in the passive voice involves, the addition of the conjugated “to be”, then the verb is changed to its past participle form, and the preposition “by” is added. It usually takes the structure below:

Object + to be verb + past participle form of the verb + preposition “by” + Subject

Examples of sentences in the passive voice are:

  • The mobile application was created by David
  • The laptop was used by her
  • Fundamental Human Rights are upheld by the UN.

 

CHANGING SENTENCES FROM THE ACTIVE VOICE TO THE PASSIVE VOICE

Changing sentences from the active voice to the passive voice, simply involves, switching the position between the subject and object. Also, there is the addition of the conjugated to be a verb, the main verb is changed to its past participle form, and the preposition “by” is also added.

Example: Change the following sentences in the active voice to passive voice:

Active Voice: Frederick cleaned the room

Passive Voice: The room was cleaned by Frederick

 

Active Voice: Shola banged the door

Passive Voice: The door was banged by Shola

 

Active Voice: Flood destroyed the new road

Passive Voice: The new road was destroyed by a flood

 

Active Voice: She called the policemen

Passive Voice: The policemen were called by her

 

SUMMARY:

The active voice and passive voice are used to show how verbs are used in a sentence. However, it is more advisable to use the active voice, because it is clearer.

 

ASSESSMENT:

  • Identify the voice that each of the following sentences is in, whether active or passive:
  1. She washed the car
  2. Bola was beaten by Tolu
  3. I clean the office regularly
  4. The room was mopped by the cleaner
  5. Mum cooked dinner.

 

  • Change the following sentences from the active voice to the passive voice:
  1. Roseline painted the house
  2. The pyramids were made by Ancient Egyptians
  3. Bola plucked the apples
  4. Daddy bought his car last year
  5. The students bought a gift

 

 

 

VOCABULARY: WORDS ASSOCIATED WITH CULTURAL ENTERTAINMENT

Here, words that are related to cultural entertainment would be stated and explained

 

WordsMeaning
FolkloresFolklores are stories, which are told among the people in a particular society, and passed down from one generation to another generation.
Ayo gameThis is a game played by the Yoruba people. It is played with the use of a wooden box, which has two rows, with six holes, each. In each hole, there are four seeds, to be passed around in the box.
LegendsThis is also another form of traditional storytelling, which is based on the heroic deeds of great men and women in the past.
Senet gameThis is a board game played in Ancient Egypt.
Kete danceThis is a dance whereby the dancer rolls and stretches his palms over each other, while in a locomotive position. Its origin is in Ghana.
Bata danceThis originates from the Yoruba people, in which the feet, hands and shoulders are used in an energetic way to dance.
Adowa danceThis is a traditional dance that originated from Ghana, in which dancers express their emotions through the movement of their hands and feet.
Atilogwu danceThis is a cultural youth dance from the Igbos, that involves a rigorous movement of the body, and it often includes acrobatics.
Masquerade displayThis is a common form of cultural entertainment in Africa, whereby masquerades come out in their regalia to display and entertain the people.
AfrobeatThis is a form of musical entertainment that combines the West African musical style with American Jazz.

 

 

I hope the above has helped? Please feel free to ask questions as regards the English approved SS2 English second term lesson note for 2024 if you have any and I will be glad to assist.

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