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SS3 Government First Term Lesson Note 2023
SS3 FIRST TERM GOVERNMENT E-NOTE
Nature and Structure of Nigerian Federalism
Problems of Nigerian Federalism
Minority Issue and the Creation of States
Inter-Ethnic Rivalry and Issue of State Creation
Development of Political Parties in Nigeria
Government SSS3 First Term Mid-Term Assessment
Development of Political Parties in Nigeria (Cont 1.).
Development of Political Parties in Nigeria (Cont 2.).
Development of Political Parties in Nigeria (Cont 3.).
Development of Political Parties in Nigeria (Cont 4.).
Development of Political Parties in Nigeria (Cont 5.).
Major Political Crisis in Nigeria
Government SSS3 First Term Final Assessment
Student should be able to:
- Explain federalism in Nigeria
- List factors that necessitated the formation of federalism
- List conferences organised by the colonial powers
- Emergence of federalism in Nigeria
- Factors that necessitated the formation of federalism
iii. Conferences organised by the colonial powers
The Emergence of Federalism
The Emergence of Federalism in Nigeria could be traced to the division of the county into three provinces (Northern, Eastern and Western provinces) in 1939. Before Governor Bourdillon left office, he recommended for the introduction of the region to replace the existing provinces. In 1946, the Richards constitution introduced regionalism into the Nigeria political system. Northern, Eastern and Western regions then replaced the former three provinces. The introduction of a federal structure in 1954 was the idea of Richard’s constitution of 1946. In 1953, Macpherson constitution improved on Richard by creating House of Representatives with powers to make laws for the country and Regional Houses of Assembly also to make laws for the regions on specific matters.
Federalism is identified with power-sharing and this was what happened with Macpherson constitution. In the same vein, the Lyttelton constitution of 1954 came with a federal system of government for the country. It was a result of the 1953 London constitutional Conference, where it was decided that Nigeria should be made a federal state. Federalism involves the sharing of powers between the central government and subordinate unit(s), e.g. local government and state/region. In 1954, we had two tiers of government, the centre and regions, both had their powers defined and shared by the constitution. Exclusive legislative functions went to the central government; concurrent legislative functions went to both the central and regional governments while residual legislative functions went to the regions.
Factors Responsible for Nigerian Federation
- Cultural diversity: It is argued that cultural diversity among ethnic groups in Nigeria makes the operation of a federal system possible(over 250 ethnic groups are in Nigeria).
- British colonial policy: Britain imposed a federal structure by dividing the territory into regions and ruling them separately. It was the Lyttelton constitution that formally introduced a federal system to Nigeria in 1954.
- Size of the country: Nigeria is a large country both in population and territory and so federalism is a better option.
- Availability of human and natural resources: Nigeria has enough of these resources to run a federal system.
- Geographical factor: Different component units are geographically near to one another, making it easier for the adoption of a federal system.
- For effective administration: Federalism makes for duplication of functions, creating the atmosphere for an enduring and effective administration.
- Bringing government to the grassroots: Federalism makes the people to be involved in the policy-making of their country.
- Dominance of powerful state: This will bring about the formation of federalism in other to checkmate the dominance of powerful states.
The London Constitutional Conference of 1953
The colonial secretary, Mr.Oliver Lyttelton, informed the British House of Commons on May 20, 1953, about the situation in Nigeria. He maintained that events had shown that the three regions could not work effectively in a federation as was then structured. He suggested that the British government should invite representatives of the regions to London to discuss redrafting of the Nigerian constitution and in it, a greater regional autonomy and issues within the jurisdiction of the regions should not be subject to the central government’s control.
The following were some of the agreements reached:
- The establishment of a federal system of government: There was to be a federal system of government in which powers had to be shared with residual powers vested in the regions.
- Legislative powers: Legislative powers should be shared between the central assembly and regional legislature.
- The Governor of Nigeria: This would be designated “Governor-general”, while regional Lieutenant-governors would be designated “Governors”
- Federal capital territory: Lagos should be separated from the Western Region and be made a federal capital.
- Cameroun for separate regional administration: Subject to ramification by a conference to be held in Lagos in 1954, a separate regional administration would be established in the Cameroun, if the inhabitants of the territory would support the proposal through a referendum.
- Self-government for the regions: The British government would in 1956 grant internal self-government to those regions which wanted it.
- Electoral colleges: The regional legislatures would no longer act as an electoral college for the central legislature.
Lagos Conference of 1954
On January 19, 1954, the constitutional conference re-convened in Lagos to discuss some issues that were not attended to at the previous constitutional conference. They were also, to look into the report of Sir Louis Chick’s Fiscal Commission of December, 1953, and they made the following submissions.
- Allocation of financial resources: To federal and regional governments and to be based on the principle of derivation.
- Regionalisation of the public service: In line with the principle of federalism, public service, as well as the judiciary, was to regionalised.
- Autonomy to Southern Cameroun: The Commission recommended that autonomy should be given to Southern Cameroun.
- Quasi-federal territory: Northern Cameroun remained with the Northern region while Southern Cameroun remained part of the federation but separated from the Eastern region and be made a quasi-federal territory with a legislature of its own.
Nature and Structure of Nigerian Federalism
Student should be able to:
- Explain federalism before independence from 1914 to 1959
- 1976-till date
- Federalism before independence from 1914 to 1959
- 1960 – 1966
iii. 1967 – 1975
- 1976 – to date
Federalism before Independence 1914-1959
It all started in 1914 amalgamation by Fredrick Lord Lugard when Lagos and Southern protectorate were merged and Northern protectorate was separated. The colonial system of government in Nigeria introduced the Centralization of power. So, from the time of Clifford till about 1939, powers of administration and government were centralized. In 1939, the Southern Protectorate was split into Western and Eastern provinces. In 1946, regions were created out of the existing three provinces, Eastern, Western and Northern regions. Legislative powers were spelt out and shared between the House of Representatives and Regional Houses of Assembly, with the emergence of the 1951 constitution. This also gave executive powers to the then newly created council of ministers. The president of the council was the governor while four ministers represented each region.
In 1954, the Lyttelton constitution introduced a federal system of government in Nigeria, which came after the 1953 London constitutional conference where it was agreed that a federal system should be set up with the regions becoming autonomous and given residual(relating) legislative functions without the Central government’s interference. The constitution further came up with exclusive legislative lists, with functions only for the central government to legislate on through the parliament. The concurrent legislative list had the functions for both the central and regional governments to exercise. The constitution also made provision for the appointment of premiers and in 1957, the office of a prime minister was created.
The Federalism Between 1960 and 1966
The independence constitution of 1960, still retained the federal system introduced in 1954 by Lyttelton constitution. The power of sharing formula was equally retained but in the exercise of functions by both the central and regional governments under concurrent legislative list, conflict may arise between them. The constitution stated that the laws made by the central government would take procedure over the regions. In 1963, the Mid-west region was created out of the Western region, this made the regions in the country to be four in number.
Federalism Between 1967 and 1975
This period was the evolution of the military in the political system. The military stunted the growth of political culture in the country. Also, it systematically destroyed all democratic and political institutions and other basic features of federalism. The government of Aguiyi Ironsi introduced a unitary system into the country with the promulgation of decree No 34. When Lt. Colonel Yakubu Gowon assumed power as the new Head of state, he created 12 states out of the existing four regions on May 27, 1967. It was this action that forced Ojukwu to announce the secession (withdrawn) of the Eastern regions on May 20, 1967. This led to the Civil war which started on July 6, 1967. During this time, there is no well-defined power-sharing in a military administration because of its centralization or concentration of power at the centre. Although, Nigeria remained a federal structure on paper, under every military setting.
Federalism from 1976 to Date.
This period, more states were created out of the existing 12 states bringing the total to 19, by Major-General Muritala Mohammed, who came to power in 1975. The Justice Ayo Irikefe panel’s recommendation on state creation, brought about the creation of an additional seven states on February 3 1976.
In 1979, the military left the political scene and a democratically elected government was constituted, this is known as the Second Republic. The 1979 constitution which ushered in the Second Republic introduced a presidential system of government with the recognition of an executive president as both Head of state and government. It also maintained the three tiers of government(central, state and local governments) with their powers derived from the constitution.
The National Assembly was given exclusive functions to perform from the exclusive legislative list. Both the central government and state shared powers from the concurrent legislative list and residual powers went to the 19 states. Powers of local government were distinctly enumerated in the constitution. Also, the powers of the three organs of government were separated both in premised (formal/base) on diffusion and deconcentration of powers, functions and the essence of which was to check the abuse of power.
However, the Buhari/Idiagbon military regime did not allow the elected Civilian government in place to complete its second term in office. General Ibrahim Babangida’s administration that came in 1985, created Akwa Ibom and Katsina states on the 23rd of September, 1987 and before he stepped aside in 1993, Babangida succeeded in creating nine additional states(including Edo and Delta) in August, 1991. This brought the total number of states in the country to 30 and Abuja, the Federal Capital Territory(FCT), has its minister. General Sani Abacha came to power in November 1993, he created six more states on 1st October, 1996, bringing the present number of states in the country to 36.
Problems of Nigerian Federalism
Student should be able to:
- Explain the revenue allocation formula in Nigeria
- List needs for revenue allocation in a federal state
- Explain conflict over each adopted revenue allocation formula
- Revenue allocation formula in Nigeria
- Need for revenue allocation in a federal state.
iii. Conflict over each adopted revenue allocation formula
Revenue Allocation Formula in Nigeria
Revenue Allocation in Nigeria be it in pre-independence or post-independence era is characterized by controversy. Each level of government-federal, state and local wants to have a sizeable share of the national cake. The frequent promulgation of military decrees before now and the frequent setting up of commissions both for revenue allocation was to satisfy the interest of the stakeholders in having a fair share of allocation from the common pool account. It is in a bid to satisfy these competing interests that Nigeria is in a continuous search for a generally acceptable formula for revenue allocation. Therefore, all efforts aimed at achieving generally acceptable formulae for revenue sharing in Nigeria should be guided by national interest which should super cede individual or primordial interests.
Components of Revenue Allocation Formula in Nigeria
The Vertical and Horizontal Formulae:- Fundamentally, there are two components of the revenue allocation formula used for the disbursement of the Federation Account as indicated hereunder.
Vertical Allocation Formula (VAF)
Horizontal Allocation Formula (HAF)
The Vertical Allocation Formula:
This formula shows the percentage allocated to the three tiers of government i.e. federal, states and local governments. This formula is applied vertically to the total volume of disbursal revenue in the Federation Account at a particular point in time. The VAF allows every tier of government to know what is due to it; the Federal Government on one hand and the 36 States and 774 Local Governments on the other.
The Horizontal Allocation Formula:
The formula applies to States and Local Governments only. It provides the basis for sharing of the volume of revenue already allocated enbloc to the 36 States and 774 Local Governments. Through the application of the principles of horizontal allocation formula, the allocation due to each State or Local Government is determined. Thus, it can conveniently be concluded that the vertical allocation formula is for inter-tier sharing between the three tiers of government while the horizontal allocation formula is for intra-tier sharing amongst the 36 States and the 774 Local Governments in Nigeria.
Needs for revenue allocation in a federal state
Equitable Allocation of Revenue are allocation given to air economy to reduce inequalities among them, as regard to the financial resources available in the country.
The factors that should be considered to ensure the rational allocation of revenue are population, size, wealth and level of development. The allocation of revenue based on these factors above will help the economy to attain economic growth and development, which is the most important thing in any successful economy. The need for allocation of revenue arises because of such inequalities. When revenue resources are equitably distributed to various sectors of the economy, some benefits could be achieved and they are:
Enhancement of standard of living:
If the revenue resources are equitably allocated in a given economy, the standard of living in such an area will increase.
Since economic growth and development depend on the available resources, the more resources are fairly allocated in the economy, the more the level of development. The resources could be used in the provision of good roads, health care delivery services, electricity etc.
Employment is created to the masses when the allocation of resources are used in the provision of infrastructural facilities.
This is a mean by which poverty is eliminated in a given country. It is done by any sector of the economy. This could be made possible if proper allocation is made to the sector.
Conflict over revenue allocation formula
The principles of horizontal allocation of resources from oil between states and local governments changed rapidly and continuously. This led to conflict after conflict within the polity, some violent and some not. To make their resolutions known, the regions and ethnic grouping and regrouping of the minority and disadvantaged communities made a declaration, after the declaration that stresses upon the need to control their resources and be compensated for the injustices suffered in the years past. They declare their resolve to free themselves from environmental degradation due to oil exploration and seek equity and justice.
Each declaration has resource control and distribution as keywords. The first being the Biafra declaration of secession on May 30, 1967 by Ojukwu, this was to be followed by a declaration of secession of the west by Awolowo, as agreed. But Awolowo did not declare (again the rule of the game: agreement honoured when breached). Instead, he (Awolowo) took a dual position in Gowon’s administration as minister of finance and a civilian head of government. This led to a 30 months civil war to unite Nigeria which ended on January 14, 1970. Thus, Gowon became an acronym for unity “Go On With One Nigeria”. That was just the beginning of not more civil wars but violent ethnic conflict in struggle for resource control. The painful aspect of this unjust allocation of revenue to the centre was the waste and embezzlement of the revenue from oil in the 1970s. The funds were wasted in events like, FESTAC – First World black and African Festival of Arts and Culture. Nigeria joined the ‘Dutch diseased’ nations and since then has become sick. Looters and public treasury rapist emerged sweeping Niger.
Minority Issue and the Creation of States
Student should be able to:
- List major and minor ethnic groups in Nigeria
- State reasons for the demand of more state
- Explain the complexity and endless nature of the state creation
- Know recommendation of willink’s commission
- Explain solution to minority problems in Nigeria
- The major and minor ethnic groups in Nigeria
- Reasons for the demand of more states
iii. Complexity and endless nature of the state creation
- Recommendation of willink’s commission
- Solution to minority problems in Nigeria
The major and minor ethnic groups in Nigeria
There are about 374 ethnic groups in Nigeria and the groups are divided into two – the major and the minor ethnic groups, which are:
- Major ethnic groups
- The Yoruba’s
- The Igbo’s
iii. The Hausa/Fulani
- The minor ethnic groups
These are found in different states like:
iv.Cross River State
The Yoruba ethnic group
This is one of the major ethnic groups in Nigeria that can be found in South-West Nigeria. The ethnic groups occupy Ogun, Oyo, Ondo, Osun, Ekiti, and Lagos states. They can also be found in Kwara, Kogi and Edo states.
The Igbo ethnic group
This is one of the major ethnic groups in Nigeria that can be found in the South-East part of Nigeria. The states are; Abia, Enugu, Ebonyi, Imo and Anambra etc.
The Hausa/Fulani ethnic group
This is also one of the major ethnic groups in Nigeria that can be found in North-West, and North-East part of the country. The states are Kano, Sokoto, Kastina, Adamawa, Jigawa, Kaduna, Borno, Bauchi, Gombe, Kebbi, Zamfara, Yobe, and Taraba.
The minor ethnic groups
Benue; this is one of the minor ethnic groups state in Nigeria and they are Tiv, Idoma, and Igede.
Kogi; these are, Igala, Ebira and Kana.
Delta; Ijaw, Itsekiri, Urhobo, Isoko etc.
Cross river; they are, Efik, etc
Akwa Ibom; Ibibio
Edo; Bini, Isan.
Reasons for the demand of more states
It should be recalled that former Nigeria president, General Yakubu Gowon divided Nigeria into 12 states on May 27th 1967. Late president, Murtala Mohammed increased Nigeria states from 12 to 19 on February 3rd, 1976. General Babaginda increased Nigeria states from 19 to 21 on September 27th 1987 and on August 21, 1991, increased Nigeria states once more from 21 to 30. On October 1st 1996, late General Sani Abacha increased Nigeria states from 30 to 36. What these presidents have in common is that they are all military leaders who created these states by fiat. Nigerians did not have much say on the nature, size and structure of these states.
What are the reasons for an endless quest for more states by various groups? The reasons are numerous. One reason is the innate desire of minorities to be free from the control of the majority.
The argument in favour of more states that has some merit is that it will bring government nearer to the people.
The other issue was that an attempt was made to use the nationality factor to address the minority nationalities. The Benue-Plateau state was broken into Benue and Plateau states; the North-Eastern state was divided into Bauchi, Borno and Gongola states; and Niger state was created out of Sokoto.“the division of the federal territory into [state] may be revised to ensure that each [state] is of a size and capacity to perform its functions effectively.
Nigeria sought to address the mischief of the instability of the First Republic and the civil war where it was felt that it was the size of the regions that contributed to the instability and the ensuing civil war.
Complexity and Endless Nature of State Creation
it has been resolved that state creation should be based on parity between the geo-political zones to ensure equality of zones. We have always advocated that one of the surest ways of drawing the government closer to the people, and promoting rapid infrastructural development, economic growth and broaden political participation in a political entity, is to create as many states as can be considered appropriate for a country in relations to its population and geographical mass. Nigeria, with an estimated population of over 170 million people, has 36 states and a federal capital (Abuja) at the moment. But with about 250 tribes/ethnic groups, Nigeria has been daunted with the issues of marginalization, tribalism, ethnicity, religion; and so much, so that the political leadership pioneering of the country have been adversely affected since independence. Rather than our “diversity” to make us more united, it has created more headaches; as the nation’s vast resources have not been used/appropriated for the benefit of all.
However, the creation of states has over the years given Nigerians with their complexities, the opportunity to develop and grow according to their own pace and human/natural endowments. But despite this, it is somewhat strange how the issue of state creation has always been a thorn in the flesh for all the civilian dispensations in Nigeria. Throughout the history of this country, States creation has been one of the most difficult tasks for civilian administrations to tackle and achieve results. So far, no elected civilian administration has been able to create states in Nigeria. Apart from when the Midwest Region that was created out of the West region, no civilian regime has been able to successfully create new states in the history of this country. It has always been the Military when it came to states creation in Nigeria’s political history. Rather than states creation to be an exclusive privileged item for the country’s democratic dispensations, it has become a process best actualized by the anti-democratic Military. We just hope and pray that the present administration will prove to be different from its predecessors on State creation, which is why we commend the development at the ongoing National Conference on State creation.
Two years back when the issue of State creation came up as a national discuss during the constitution amendment exercise, it was reported that the National Assembly set up a Committee on states creation and they outlined ‘stringent conditions’ to be met by those requesting and agitating for new states. We, at that time, reiterated the importance of creating new states and expressed the need for the said committee to remove whatever ‘fresh’ hurdles that were being considered by the National Assembly. At that time, the Committee revealed that it had received no fewer than 33 demands/requests for new states to be created.
Recommendation of Willink’s Commission
The Willink Commission named after Harry Willink, former Vice-Chancellor of Cambridge University and head of a panel commissioned in September 1957 to look into fears expressed by minority ethnic groups that the colonial imposed political structure would lead to the domination of the minority groups by the majority ethnic groups in the three regions of the federation. The commission was also charged with means of allaying those fears. A major contribution of the commission was the inclusion of much of the clauses of the European Human Rights Convention making Nigeria the first African country to have a broad human right clause enshrined in its constitution.
Minority fears about unequal treatment in the three powerful regions of Nigerian were expressed at the 1953 constitutional conference. In 1957, during another conference, the British colonial secretary appointed an old chum, Harry Willink, and assisted by Phil Mason, a director of Race Relations Institute, Chatam, Gordon Hadow, deputy governor of the Gold Coast and Mr J.B. Shearer to look into the fears of the minority groups.
The following terms of references guided the commission:
- To Ascertain the facts of the fears of minorities in Nigeria and proposing means to allay those fears whether well or ill-founded
- To advise what safeguards should be included for this purpose in the constitution. If, but only if no solution seems to the commission to solve the case, then as a last resort to make case for the creation of states.
- To report its findings to the secretary of State for the Colonies.
The commission reported on the imbalance in the three regions and also the situations creating the yearning for separate states by different groups, both points supporting the interest of minorities. However, the commission was guided from the get-go against making recommendations for state creation and in its report, it stated that states creation would not be a solution to the fears of minorities, as additional states may not guarantee against the creation of another minority group in the new states. Also, the idea that the politics prevalent towards the nation’s independence fostered ethnic animosity, but deep into self-government, there could be a reasons or situations facilitating the abatement of hostilities, and the commission was against enshrining ethnic separatism into Nigerian politics. The practical and financial viability of any new state was weighed to ascertain the prospect of new states.
The commission recommended areas of distinguishable cultures and concerns to have their cultures and areas preserved with the creation of an advisory council, special areas for the Ijaws and designation of Edo and Calabar as minority areas. Also, it recommended a unified police, a central prison system, and the promotion of minorities to the position of power to balance any inequity in power.
Solutions to Minority Problems in Nigeria
To overcome the problems of ethnicity in Nigeria and reach the principle goal – national unity, it is necessary to unite people in as many aspects of life as it is possible. Here is to list five ways of solving the problems of ethnicity in Nigeria that can unite the nation on the governmental and social level.
- Economic cooperation
It is necessary to provide the citizens with the universal system of goods and unite regions depending on the natural resources. For example, the Edo supply country with cocoa, but receive sugar cane from the Sokoto people. The same interaction can be introduced in the other sectors of the economy.
- Political and state cooperation
The creation of common political parties and the creation of road and railway transport connection between the lands of different ethnic groups must be taken into account. Besides, the government itself has to start thinking, how can ethnic conflict be resolved and the government has to be interested in solving the current problems of ethnicity. There must be representatives of all (and even minor) cultures in the parliament to satisfy the interests of all people of Nigeria.
- Youth education
It is more difficult to influence the opinion of senior people who can still somehow (maybe because of personal reasons) support ethnic conflict in Nigeria than to influence the formation of another worldview of the young people. The subject of intercultural interaction must be included in the curriculum. Children have to attend the meeting with the representatives of other Nigerian cultures. There they can exchange the history of cultures, the cultural experience, believes, food recipes, cultural heritage, and traditions. Nothing stops aggression, discrimination, and hatred better than broad worldview provided by education
- Secular activities
The organisation of national festivals, celebration, the introduction of traditional holidays and even religion will contribute to the possible solutions to ethnic conflicts. It is not easy to change or modify ethnic habits, but it is indispensable to do the best to find common traits in all cultures and assure people that they have to find a compromise and accept changes in favour of Nigeria’s unity.
- Inter-tribal marriage
The encouraging of intercultural marriage on the governmental level will surely solve the problems of ethnicity. Intercultural tribes can be supported financially and officially congratulated to show respect to people who contribute to the creation of a unified Nigerian nation.
Inter-Ethnic Rivalry and Issue of State Creation
Student should be able to:
- Explain the nature of ethnic conflicts and rivalry in Nigeria
- Explain the problems of secession in Nigeria
- Explain measures to avoid secession in Nigeria
- The nature of ethnic conflicts and rivalry in Nigeria.
- Problems of secession in Nigeria.
iii. Measures to avoid secession in Nigeria
The Nature of Ethnic Conflicts And Rivalry in Nigeria
During the Colonisation of African people, colonialists failed to put the issue of cultural differences of various ethnic groupings into consideration before lumping them together in (Colonial) state formation. The oversight has constituted and remained one of the greatest challenges of post-colonial Africa.
The inter-ethnic violence which Agyeman(1992) terms ethnic genocidal wars that continue to erupt over land and other matters of purely, local nature in Zango- Kataf/ Hausa conflict, Tiv/Jukun conflict and Ibo/ Annang in Nigeria, cited as classical cases of ethnic violence. On the other hand, Civil wars in Nigeria, Ethiopia, Angola, Sudan, Rwanda, etc. indicate the ethnic scourge perspectives. There are also instances of intra-ethnic violence in Nigeria such as those of Ife/Modakeke and others.
Problems of Secession in Nigeria
As a result of boundary demarcations during the British colonial period, Nigeria became a multi-ethnic nation with over 250 ethnic groups. The three(3) main groups mobilized around geographical regions, including the Hausa-Fulani in the North, Yoruba in West and Igbo in the East. These ethnic-regional groupings were entrenched(established) in the 1960 constitution and its conflict management represents a significant challenge from Nigeria.
The problems are :
- Fight against National Unity:
The Colonial legacy of three(3) separate administrations (closely resembling three dominant ethnic groupings), is a major obstacle to national unity, because mobilization continues to take place along ethnic line.
- Competition for natural resources:
This has fuelled tensions between the oil-rich south and the predominantly(widespread), agricultural North. The location of oil in certain ethnic areas and its management by post-independence governments have exacerbated ethnic tensions.
- Religious Crisis:
Religious differences between the Christian South and Muslim North features strongly in regional power struggles. Clashes over the introduction of Islamic sharia law in the Northern Nigeria’s Zamfara state is an example.
- Ethnic based militant groups:
The formation of militant fuel ethnic violence.
- For decades after independence – Ethnic tensions were exploits (achievement) through a ” divide and rule” approach to power.
Problems of Secession in Nigeria.
Different ethnic groups have at one time or the other threatened to secede or break away from Nigeria.
- The North openly threatened secession after 1953 self-government in the House of Representatives. In 1960, the North again threatened to secede if it was not guaranteed half the scrats in the federal population.
- In May 1967, the former Eastern region of Nigeria formerly seceded from Nigeria, declaring part of the country, ‘Republic of Biafra’.
- The Yoruba, of the Western region, were divided. Chief Obafemi Awolowo, hitherto their most popular leader has said and confirmed it after Biafra’s secession, that the West would not wish to remain in a truncated federation.
Measures to avoid secession in Nigeria
- True Federalism
- Ethnicity factor: Every Nigerian, irrespective of one’s ethnic background should be free to belong in any part of the country where he or she wishes to live and work. That is, he should be free to make such a place his permanent home, without segregation.
A constitutional conference should be constituted where delegates from different parts of the country will converge to discuss a way forward for Nigeria.
- Appointments: All political appointments should be made to promote units, ensure stability and sense of belonging.
- Unity in diversity: Our political leaders should be able to translate unity in diversity into reality.
- No discrimination: There should be no discrimination based on language, education, religion, ethnic affinity.
Development of Political Parties in Nigeria
Student should be able to:
- Explain the establishment of NNDP
- establishment of NYM
- establishment of NCNC
- National Democratic Party (NNDP)
- Nigerian youth movement (NYM )
iii. National Council of Nigeria and Cameroun citizens (NCNC)
Development of Political Parties
This is the historical background of political parties, how they emerge, the aim and objectives of the political parties.
Nigerian National Democratic Party (NNDP)
This political party was formed in 1923 under the leadership of Sir Herbert Macaulay, who was popularly referred to as “Father of Nigerian Nationalism “. This party won all the three seats in Lagos, into the legislative council in the elections of 1923,1928 and 1933. It also won the elections into the Lagos Town Council.
The Nigerian National Democratic Party(NNDP) also founded Lagos Daily News. This was a newspaper formed by this party and it was an arm of the party which helped to encourage political activities, especially in Lagos. The party was mainly based in Lagos and did not have a national outlook. The financing of the party was done by the party members. However, the political history of Lagos in the twenties and thirties was essentially the history of Herbert Macaulay’s political activities, and he also identified himself with the people.
Contributions of NNDP
- The NNDP successfully organized various Lagos interest groups into a single group that was able to compete politically.
- The (NNDP) ran many candidates for seats in the 1922 elections for the Lagos Legislative Council, winning three seats.
- The party won all the seats in the elections of 1923, 1928 and 1933. Though the party’s major function was to put candidates into the legislative council, it had a broader objective of promoting democracy in Nigeria, increasing higher Nigerian participation in the social, economic and educational development of Nigeria.
- The party continued to dominate politics in Lagos until 1938
Nigerian Youth Movement (NYM)
This was formed in 1935 and featured characters like, Earnest Ikoli, Samuel Akinsanya and Dr C. Vaughan. The movement competed with NNDP for the control of political activities of Lagos. Nnamdi Azikwe, H.O Davies, Obafemi Awolowo and Samuel Akintola later joined the movement. The party had a national outlook based on the composition of the members.
Aims and Objectives
- To work towards the unity of Nigeria.
- To work towards the attainment of self-rule.
Contributions of Nigerian Youth Movement
- Legislative council: It won all the three elective seats allocated to Lagos in the legislative council, this creates room more competition between parties and also promote overtaken in competition.
- Unity: It worked to promote national unity.
- National Outlook: NYM was the first political party that had a national outlook in the composition of members.
- Set machinery for independence: It set the machinery for a political independence of Nigeria.
- Modern national: It could further in bringing in modern nationalism to Nigeria.
The National Council of Nigeria And Cameroun’s ( NCNC)
The NCNC was formed in 1944. The first president was Herbert Macaulay and the first general secretary was Dr Nnamdi Azikwe. At the death of Herbert Macaulay, Azikwe became the president and when Southern Cameroun left Nigeria in August 1944, the NCNC changed its name to National Council for Nigerian Citizens. This party was as a result of the split in the Nigerian Youth Movement (NYM) over-representation of the party in the vacant legislative council seats in 1941. Dr Nnamdi Azikwe took over the leadership of NCNC as a result of the death of Herbert Macaulay in 1946.
Aims and Objectives of the NCNC
- Political reforms: To arouse mass interest and obtain overwhelming national support for political reforms.
- Political education: To achieve political: To achieve political independence by educating people of Nigeria politically.
- To extend democratic principles: This is to extend the democratic principles of the people of Nigeria.
- To secure freedom of expression: To secure political freedom, economic security, social equality and religious tolerance as a good medium of expression that had to be introduced.
The Contributions of the NCNC
- The struggles for self-governance.
- It educate Nigerian on their political rights.
- It introduced and published the West African pilot which served as a powerful platform for opposing colonial rule.
- NCNC took part in most of the constitutional conferences, e.g the 1953 London constitutional conference.
- The NCNC worked in agreement with NPC in creating Mid- Western region out of the Western region in 1963.
- The party was instrumental to the sending of delegates to London to protest the 1946 constitution.
First Term Mid-Term Assessment
Top of Form
- Federalism is identified with__________?
- The Emergence of Federalism in Nigeria could be traced to the division of the county into three provinces (Northern, Eastern and Western provinces) in_______?
- Regionalisation of the public service was made during______?
conference in London 1949
Lagos conference 1954
Ibadan conference 1945
- The colonial secretary during London constitutional conference was _____?
Mr Oliver Lyttleton
Mr Paul Oliver Lyttleton
Mr William Oliver Lyttleton
Mr Wright Oliver Lyttleton
- In 1946, the Richards constitution introduced regionalism into the Nigeria political system?
Autem est eum ut laudantium.?
Itaque est ut ea necessitatibus dicta blanditiis.?
- 1914 amalgamation was by __________?
Fedrick Lord Lugard
Federer Lord Lugard
- In _______ regions were created out of the existing three provinces?
- In 1993 creation of states was made by?
- _______ came to power in 1975 when an additional seven states were created?
- The independence constitution of 1960 retained the federal system introduced in 1954 by?
- What is the full meaning of VAF?
vertical areas formula
verticals allocation formulae
vertical allocation formula
vertical area formulae
- The following are the factors that should be considered to ensure rational allocation of revenue except?
level of development
- Declaration of secession of Biafra was on?
May 20 1967
march 20 1967
May 30 1967
march 30 1967
- Declaration of secession of Biafra was done by?
- ___________ became an acronym for unity “Go On With One Nigeria”?
- Ogun, Oyo, Ondo, Osun, Ekiti, and Lagos states are for?
- Abia, Enugu, Ebonyi, Imo and Anambara are for?
- Minority fears about unequal treatment in the three powerful regions of Nigerian were expressed at the__________?
1953 constitutional conference
1954 constitutional conference
1955 constitutional conference
1956 constitutional conference
- The Willink Commission named after Harry Willink, former Vice-Chancellor of Cambridge University and head of a panel commissioned in September, ________?
- Igala is part of?
- Nigeria has over _______ ethnic groups?
- CONFAB is a _________?
conference of the elite
conference of university
- The Colonial legacy of three(3) separate administrations (closely resembling three dominant ethnic groupings), is a major obstacle to national unity, because mobilization continues to take place along ethnic line.
Inventore laborum saepe cupiditate.?
Reprehenderit et hic odit dolores.?
- The North openly threatened secession after________ self-government in the House of Representatives?
- Every Nigerian, irrespective of one’s ethnic background should be free to belong in any part of the country where he or she wishes to live and work. That is, he should be free to make such a place his permanent home, without segregation?
- NNDP was formed in the year ____,,?
- The NCNC worked in agreement with NPC in creating Mid- Western region out of the Western Region in the year______,?
- The NCNC was formed in the year?
- The NYM was formed in the year?
- Dr Nnamdi Azikwe took over the leadership of NCNC as a result of the death of Herbert Macaulay in 1946?
Et est impedit enim inventore illo nesciunt.?
Omnis omnis excepturi et sint.?
Bottom of Form
Development of Political Parties in Nigeria (Cont.).
Student should be able to:
- Explain the existence of AG
- Explain the existence of NPC
- Explain the existence of NEPU
- Action group (AG)
- Northern people’s congress (NPC)
iii. Northern elements Progressive Union (NEPU)
The Action Group (AG)
Action Group (AG) was formed in 1951 as the political wing of the Egbe Omo Oduduwa(a Yoruba cultural organisation). Its leader was Obafemi Awolowo. It dominated the Western region political scene for eleven years (1951-1962). Other political figures in the party were S.L Akintola, Bode Thomas, Chief Shonibare etc. Action Group, at its launch, was declared a regional party, and it worked towards bringing together all the nationalists in the region.
Aims and Objectives
- Federal form of government: It advocated for a federal form of government.
- Growth and development: To work towards the growth and development of the West.
- To bring all nationalist in Western region under one umbrella.
- To awaken the political conscience in the lives of the people.
Contributions of Action Group (AG)
- Political scene: The party dominated Western Nigeria’s political scene for about 11 years.
- Opposition party in parliament: It formed the opposition party in federal parliament before and during the first republic.
- Struggle for independence: The Action Group joined the NCNC and NPC In Nigeria’s political struggle for independence.
- Universal Free Primary Education (UPE): The party advocated for free education and successfully introduced the Universal Free Primary Education in Western Nigeria in 1953.
- Constitutional conferences: Action Group as a party was involved in most of the constitutional conferences, e.g 1953 London constitutional conference.
- The motion for self- government.: This motion was moved by Chief Anthony Enahoro in 1953. He was a member of the AG group.
The Northern People’s Congress (NPC)
This party was formed in 1951. It started as a cultural organization. Jamiyyur by the Hausa/Fulani and Islam was the main focus. It ruled Northern Nigeria between (1951-1965). The leader was the late Sir Ahmadu Bello with Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa as deputy. The party produced the first prime minister of Nigeria.
Aims and Objectives
- Development of the North: The party worked towards developing the North, both politically and economically.
- Autonomy (Self-government): To work towards making the North autonomous.
- Common understanding: To create an atmosphere for common understanding among the people of the North.
- Political education: The NPC helped in educating the Northerners on their political rights.
Contributions of NPC
- Governance: It controlled and ruled northern Nigeria for several years.
- Prime Minister: NPC, as a party, produced the first prime minister of Nigeria and ruled throughout the First Republic.
- Common Understanding: The party created the atmosphere for common understanding among the people of the North.
- Constitutional conferences: The party was involved in most of the constitutional conferences, both within and outside Nigeria, e.g. the 1953 London constitutional conference.
- Political education: It helped in educating the political rights and also increased the political awareness of the people of the north.
Northern Elements Progressive Union (NEPU)
The Northern Elements Progressive Union (NEPU), led by the late Mallam Aminu Kano, broke away from NPC. (NEPU) was the first political party in Northern Nigeria. Founded in Kano on 8 August 1950, it was the offshoot of a pre-existing political association called the Northern Elements Progressive Association. It became the main opposition party in Northern Nigeria after the region was granted self-governance in the 1950s. In the First Republic, it maintained a steady alliance with Zikist National Council of Nigeria and the Cameroons (NCNC) against the Northern People’s Congress (NPC)-dominated Federal Government.
Aims and Objectives of NEPU
- To free the nation from the hand of colonial masters administration to indigenous leadership.
- Bringing the poor who are the masses in the affairs of governance.
- Reducing the burden of mal-treatment of traditional institutions toward the masses
- Promoting the social well-being of every member of the society.
- Bridging the gap of class differences between the poor and rich.
- Operating transparent and free corrupt Governance.
Contributions of NEPU
- The members were connected in their opposition to the management style of the native administration in Northern Nigeria.
- NEPU participated in the Kano primary elections and was fairly successful.
- he succeeded in gaining a major regional seat during the 1959 parliamentary election.
- He won the Kano East federal seat as a candidate of NEPU
Development of Political Parties in Nigeria (Continue.).
Student should be able to:
- Know the founder of NPN
- The founder of UPN
- And of NPP
- National Party of Nigeria (NPN)
- Unity Party of Nigeria. (UPN)
iii. Nigerian People’s Party (NPP)
National Party of Nigeria (NPN)
This could be seen partly as an offshoot of NPC (first Republic Political Party). The majority of the leaders were from the former NPC, e.g. Ali Monguno, Adamu Ciroma, Adisa Akinloye (the party’s chairman), Shehu Shagari (the presidential candidate that won the elections and became the first Head of State and Government of Nigeria in the Second Republic), Dr K.O Mbadiwe, Olushola Saraki etc.
The Aims and Objectives
- To develop an enviable housing scheme for all, at both urban and rural settings.
- To achieve self- reliance in the agricultural sector and to develop a strong industrial base, with equal opportunities for all Nigerians.
- To show respect to the provisions of the constitution.
Contributions of National Party of Nigeria.
- National party: The party was more of nationals from different part of the country. The membership spread to almost all parts of the country.
- The party won the 1979 and 1983 second Republic Presidential election.
- The party produced the first executive president for the country, who was both the Head of state and government.
- It also won the governorship election in seven states of the federation.
- It helps in educating the members and the public on their political rights.
- The party helped to recruit leaders to political offices in government and within the parties.
- Housing and Agricultural programme scheme was pursued to some extent by the party.
Unity Party of Nigeria (UPN)
This party was founded and led by Chief Obafemi Awolowo during second Republic. Other founding members were chief Ajasin, Chief Bola Ige, Professor Ambrose Ali (First Executive Governor of Bendel state), Chief M.C.K. Ajuluckukwu, Alhaji Lateef Jakande, etc. Chief Obafemi Awolowo was the presidential candidate for the party. The party won the governorship election in five states.
Aims and Objectives
- To introduce free education at all levels.
- To employ the people.
- To pursue free medical services for all.
- To pursue rural integrated programme
Contributions of Unity Party of Nigeria.
- Free education: The party introduced free education in all the states won by UPN.
- The party won the governorship election in five states( Lagos, Ondo, Bendel, Oyo and Ogun) of the federation.
- Free medical services, gainful employment and rural interest programmes were pursued and implemented by the party.
- Political education: Members of the public were educated on their political rights and the need for political participation.
- The party helped to recruit leaders to political offices in the government as well as within the parties.
- The party won seats into the Senate and House of Representatives at the Centre in 1979 and 1983.
- The party promoted Fiscal discipline in all the states it controlled.
- UPN was the party to announce its existence after the lifting of a ban on political activities in 1978 and also won Gubernatorial Election in Kwara state in 1983.
Nigerian People’s Party (NPP)
The party was founded during the Second Republic in Nigeria, the leader was Alhaji Ibrahim Waziri. Other members were chief Adeniran Ogunsanya( chairman of the party) Dr Obi Wali, Chief J. Nwobodo, Chief Sam Mbakwe, both won the governorship election for Anambra and Imo state respectively. Dr Nnamdi Azikwe who later joined the party was nominated as the presidential candidate. However, the leader, Alhaji Ibrahim Waziri later left the party, and the post of the chairman.
Aims and Objectives of NPP
- To promote the unity, sovereignty and the territorial integrity of Nigeria.
- To promote the rights of individuals in the society and the enhancement of the rule of law and equal justice.
- For a better standard of living by providing shelters and food for the people.
- For a self-reliant economy with equitable distribution of the gains of economic development within the political system.
Contributions of the Nigerian People’s Party
- The party cooperated and worked with the ruling party in government (NPN) to ensure a sustainable Second Republic administration.
- The party captured three states in the gubernatorial elections, Imo, Anambra and Plateau.
- Members of the party and the public were educated by the party (NPP) on their political rights.
- It helped to recruit leaders to political offices in the government as well as in the parties.
- The party served as a link between the government and the people.
Development of Political Parties in Nigeria (Cont 3.).
Student should be able to:
- Explain the existence of GNPP
- Explain the existence of PRP
- Explain the existence of NAP
- Great Nigerian people’s party (GNPP)
- People’s Redemption Party (PRP)
iii. Nigerian Advance Party (NAP)
Great Nigeria People’s Party (GNPP)
The party was formed by Alhaji Ibrahim Waziri. He left NPP to form GNPP because of quarrels over the presidential and Chairmanship positions. He was both the leader and presidential candidate. GNPP was a minor party and succeeded in winning Gubernatorial elections in only two states ( Borno and Gongola). GNPP was founded in 1978.
Aims and Objectives of GNPP
- To promote and sustain national unity.
- To foster a dynamic and vibrant economy.
- To provide a dynamic foreign policy.
- To provide an equitable distribution of national wealth for the development of all parts of the country.
Contributions of GNPP
1.Won governorship seat of two states – Borno and Gongola.
- The party was able to implement parts of its programmes in the two states it controlled.
- GNPP also won 8 senate seat and 43 seats in the house of representative
People’s Redemption Party (PRP)
The PRP was founded in 1978 by Mallam Aminu Kano and highly regarded as a progressive left of centre political party. PRP was a minor party and succeeded in winning the governorship election in only two states (Kano and Kaduna) in 1979. Some well-known members of the party included Governors Abubakar Rimi, Balarabe Musa, Sabo Bakin Zuwo, Michael Imoudu, Dr Edward Ikem Okeke, Bala Usman, Abdullahi Aliyu Sumaila, Sule Lamido, S.G. Ikoku, Uche Chukwumerije, Muhammadu Dikko Yusufu, Umaru Musa Yar’Adua, Bashir Yusuf Ibrahim, Ghali Umar Na’Abba and Chinua Achebe — who served briefly as Deputy National President in the early 1980s. The original party was banned following the Military Coup of 1984 led by General Buhari. In the Fourth Republic, the party with the same name resurfaced under the leadership of Abdulkadir Balarabe Musa; it could however not gather the same level of support as its Second Republic namesake.
Aims and Objectives of PRP
- Education for all, i.e. mass literacy.
- To promote agriculture.
- To promote African culture, tradition, and values.
- To provide an equitable distribution of wealth.
Contributions of PRP
- Won governorship seats in Kano and Kaduna.
- Created political awareness among the Takalawas (Kaduna people in Zaria, between Kano and Kaduna).
- Land was made available to the peasant farmers in the two states it controlled.
- Educational opportunities were also enhanced.
Nigerian Advance Party (NAP)
The party was launched on Oct 13, 1978 in Ibadan. Mr Tunji Braithwaite, a Lagos based lawyer the leader of the party then had a cautious attitude towards the idea of free education, though it later adopted a signpost of free university education and compulsory primary education. It also tried to sell itself as a dedicated new breed organization and an alternative to the old politicians of the first republic. The party was registered after the 1979 elections and only contested in the 1983 elections. It was also a minor party and did not win any election. Tunji Braithwaite, known for his opposition and as a lawyer, the party was the only new political organization allowed to field candidates for the 1983 elections. The party was composed of southern Nigerian intellectuals favouring a reformist government.
Aims and Objectives of NAP
- To promote the availability of surplus food.
- To promote full employment opportunities.
- To eradicate mosquitoes and rats.
- To provide a low-cost health insurance policy for all Nigerians.
Contributions of NAP
- The NAP only contested sixteen out of nineteen governorship seats and won no election at the state or federal. It, however, succeeded in raising the awareness involved young men and women in politics.
- It also sells itself as a dedicated new breed organization and an alternative to the old politicians of the first republic.
- It also succeeded in bringing together three political pressure groups, they were the Nigeria Tenants and Labour Congress, headed by I.H. Igali, the Nigeria Social Democratic Congress, led by Balali Dauda and the Youth Force Alliance, led by Olayinka Olabiwonu.
Development of Political Parties in Nigeria (Cont 4.).
Student should be able to:
- Explain the existence of SDP
- Explain the existence of NRC
- Social Democratic Party (SDP)
- National Republican Convention (NRC)
The Social Democratic Party (SDP)
The Social Democratic Party of Nigeria, commonly known as the SDP, was established as a centre-left political organization. It was created in 1980s/1990s era by former President Ibrahim Babangida via a democracy project meant to form two detribalized political parties – one slightly to the left and one to the right. During the Nigerian Third Republic, it was seen as a moderate party attractive to young radical intellectuals and socialists. In its manifesto, it called for concerted efforts to improve welfare and fight for social justice.
After 13 prospective parties were banned by the administration of Ibrahim Babangida in 1989, some of the associations decided to re-align. The People’s Front of Nigeria, People’s Solidarity Party, and the Nigerian Labor Party emerged to form the core constituency of the new SDP. The leadership was mostly dominated by Northern Nigerians. Babagana Kingibe was elected party chairman in 1990 over his rival Mohammed Arzika.
Social democratic party (SDP) has its national Chairman in the person of Chief Tony Anonih. It has it’s registered offices at Abuja, the state capital, local government headquarters.
Aims and Objectives of SDP
- Ensure the attainment of political power through democratic means and thereby provide qualitative and effective leadership at all levels of government to cultivate an egalitarian society based on the principles of equality, freedom and social justice.
- Mobilise the people and struggle for the emergence of a strong multi-party electoral system, genuine independence of the judiciary and the electoral agencies to achieve credible elections and accountable government that will ensure and guarantee stable polity.
- Defend the sovereignty of the people and the observance of all-inclusive, open and popular democratic processes providing fair and equal opportunity for all members and citizens aspiring to any position in the administration of all organs of the party and government at all levels.
- Promote the unity and stability of the party and the nation by instituting the principles of derivation and fiscal federalism. power-sharing and zoning of key party and government offices and positions among the six geopolitical zones and states of the Federation.
- Defend the sovereignty unity and indivisibility of Nigeria as a true Federal state through devolution of powers to the states for the development of the land and people.
- Create wealth and eliminate poverty, want, ignorance diseases and provide free education, free health services, food security through mechanized agriculture. affordable housing, potable water, good roads and security of life and property.
Contributions of SDP
- Become the third political platform and attract credible, competent, and dynamic leaders.
- Fight corruption and enthrone sharing of law.
- Gather patriotic and social Democrats who will represent the people.
- Recreate an ideological party with structured deliverables.
- Form a national party.
- Open political space for young Nigerians.
- Reflect gender sensitivity and stand with people with disability.
- Unify the Nigerian people and give voice and action to their aspirations and desires.
National Republican Convention (NRC)
The National Republican Convention was a Nigerian political party established by the government of General Ibrahim Babangida and ultimately disbanded by the military regime of General Sani Abacha in 1993. Chief Tom Ikimi an architect from Edo state the national chairman of NRC and also has its registered offices at Abuja, state, local government headquarters and wards of the country.
The party was largely an amalgamation of three major organizations, the Liberal Convention, the Nigeria National Congress and the Federalists. In its first presidential primary, the race was dominated by a few prominent Hausa-Fulani leaders. Adamu Ciroma, a former minister and former governor of the central bank was its leading candidate; he collected about 270,000 votes. Umaru Shinkafi, came in second with about 250,000.
Aims and Objectives of NRC
- To pursue the political, economic, social, educational and other objectives as well as the directive principles and policies stated in the Chapter 11 of the Constitution of the Federal Republic Nigeria.
- To attain political power through democratic and constitutional means. (b) To promote participatory democracy at all levels of government.
- To sponsor candidates for elections into elected offices from the Local Government Council levels to the Presidential level.
- To undertake other activities which in the opinion of the party are ancillary, incidental or conducive to the promotion of the aforementioned aims and objectives.
Contributions of NRC
- It sponsored candidates for elections between 1991-1993.
- The party contested and won many local government elections and elections into state and federal parliaments.
- Also, the party won gubernatorial elections in many states of the federation, but it is assumed that it lost the annulled presidential election of 1993.
- It promoted participatory democracy at all levels of government between 1991 and 1993.
Development of Political Parties in Nigeria (Cont 5.).
Student should be able to:
- Explain the existence of PDP
- Explain the existence of ANPP
- Explain the existence of AD
- Explain the existence of AC
- People’s Democratic Party (PDP)
- All Nigerian Peoples’ Party (ANPP)
iii. Alliance for Democracy (AD)
- Action Congress (AC) and small political parties.
People’s Democratic Party (PDP)
PDP at its establishment, the party had a deep-rooted beginning as it had a broad membership including businessmen, traditional chiefs academics and about a hundred retired military senior official like Olusegun Obasanjo- Nigeria’s military leader between 1976 to 1979 and PDP’s first-party candidate in the 1999 election. The party was formed in August 1998, in the wake of the democratic era in Nigeria by members of the organisations, who came together to oppose the military regime of General Sani Abacha. The party came in full force at the death of Abacha in 1998 which in turn saw the end of the military regime in the country. The first Chairman of the party was Alex Ekwueme while Professor Jerry Ghana was made its first secretary.
Aims and Objectives of PDP
- To support the promotion of integrity, unity and sovereignty of Nigeria as one political entity.
- To work towards the enhancement of the independence of the Judiciary, free press and individual rights and freedom.
- To support in the promotion of mutual respect and the harmonization of all religious groups, tradition and cultures of different groups in the country.
- To support member nations, international organisations as well as regional and sub-regional groupings e.g U.N.D, A. U. and Ecowas in executing their aims and objectives.
- To promote the right of the disabled and the rights of children especially in the area of child abuse.
Contributions of People’s Democratic Party
- PDP as a party worked towards preserving the integrity, the unity and the sovereignty of the country.
- The party contested and won elections at all levels of government throughout the country.
- It won the presidential election of 1999,2003, 2007, and 2011 general elections, making it, the party controlling the centre. It equally controls majority seats in the National Assemblies as well as in some States Assemblies and Local Government Councils.
- The introduction of the Global system of mobile communication (G.S.M) in Nigeria is a plus for the party.
- The PDP has succeeded in setting up the Economic and Financial Crime Commission (EFCC) as a measure or weapon of curbing the high rate of corruption.
The party created the National Agency for Food, Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC), to sanitize the health sector of this country as well as fighting hard fake drugs merchants.
All Nigeria People’s Party (ANPP)
The party was originally founded as the All people’s party (APP) in September 1998 by 14 Igbo and Hausa/Fulani political associations, but announced a change to its name at a press conference in June 2002 when it merged with a factor of the United Nigeria People’s Party (UNPP). The Chairman of the party was Chief Oley Nwosu and secretary General was Hon. Lawan Shettime.
Aims and Objectives of ANPP
- To co-operate in promoting unity, political stability and to evolve in people the value for national conscience.
- To promote and to see to the workability of science and technology.
- To co-operate with other political and organised bodies whose aims are in line with the demand and provision of the constitution of Nigeria.
- To promote and pursue economic, social and political freedom.
- To come up with an economic policy based on public participation even with control in the areas of production and distribution.
Contributions of All Nigerian People’s Party
- It contested into all elective posts at all levels of government during the 1999 and 2003 general elections.
- The party worked towards the promotion of political stability and national unity among Nigerians.
- The interests of farmers were adequately protected especially in the ANPP states.
- The party won 9 governorship elections in the Middle-belt zones and North West during the 1999 general elections, and some seats at the state, National Assembly and Local government councils.
Alliance for Democracy (AD)
This party was formed on 9 September 1998 as an umbrella body of 18 southern Nigeria based organisations under the auspices of the southern leaders’ forum(SLF) and two essentially Northern Nigeria based political structures ‘ the United Democratic Congress (UDC) and the United Party for National Salvation (UPNS). The AD was formed based on the ideology and principles of Afenifere, the Pan Yoruba social political and economic organisation. At the 2003 legislative elections, 12 April 2003, the party won 8.8% of the popular vote and 34 out of 360 seats in the Nigerian House of Representatives and 18 out of 109 seats in the Nigerian Senate. The Chairman of the party was Chief Joseph Avazi and secretary-general was Hon. Akin Fasogbon.
Aims and Objectives of AD
- To eliminate poverty, ignorance and want in all aspects of the people’s lives.
- To stand against exploitation and discrimination among different states in the country.
- To provide food and gainful employment for Nigerians that can work.
- To promote and provide the necessities of life, I.e. housing, food, water, free education, primary health care, security, etc. for the people of the country.
- To embark on an integrated rural development aimed at improving the quality of life in the rural setting.
Contributions of Alliance for Democracy
- The party took part in 1999 and 2003 general elections throughout the country and won seats in the National Assembly, states Assemblies and Local government election.
- Through the promotion of integrated rural development programmes, the quality of life if those in rural areas has improved considerably.
- The party promoted unity and supported every effort towards the political stability of the country.
- It won and controlled six states of the South-West zone by winning the Governorship elections in 1999 general elections and in 2003 it won and retained only Lagos state.
- The party provided free Primary and Secondary education and free primary health care especially in the states controlled by AD.
The Action Congress of Nigeria (ACN), formerly known as Action Congress (AC) was founded by Bola Tinubu in 2006, chairman by Adebisi Akande, was a Nigerian political party formed via the merger of a faction of Alliance for Democracy, the Justice Party, the Advance Congress of Democrats, and several other minor political parties in September 2006. The party controlled Lagos. It was regarded as a natural successor to the progressive politics more closely associated with the Action Group and Unity Party of Nigeria (UPN) led by Chief Obafemi Awolowo in the First and Second Republics respectively. In February 2013 the party merged with the Congress for Progressive Change, the All Nigeria Peoples Party, and the All Progressives Grand Alliance to form the All Progressives Congress. Its current chairman is Adams Oshiomole.
Aims and Objectives of AC
- To form a larger opposition to PDP and ANPP
- To facilitate the complete independence of the judiciary
- To promote sovereignty and resist all form of domination against Nigeria
- To pursue a friendly relationship with the outside world
- To integrate individuals into the society
- To encourage small scale business by promoting growth and removing obstacles that will hinder the growth of small scale business,
- To create employment opportunities, improve the educational sector, health, electricity, and transportation.
Contributions of Action Congress
- The party won the gubernatorial election in four states of Ekiti, Lagos, Edo, Osun state.
- The party also won 6 seats out of the 109 seats in the house of senate
- The party won 32 seats out of the 360 seats in the house of representative
Major Political Crisis in Nigeria
Student should be able to:
- Explain the Kano riot 1953
- Know eastern region constitution 1953
- Explain the census crisis 1962/63
- Explain Action group crisis
- Explain the Nigeria Civil War 1967-1970
- Kano riot 1953
- Eastern region constitution 1953
iii. Census crisis 1962/63
- Action group Crisis
- Nigerian Civil War 1967 – 1970
Kano riot of 1953
The Kano riot of 1953 refers to the riot, which broke out in the ancient city of Kano, located in Northern Nigeria, in May 1953. The nature of the riot were clashes between Northerners who were opposed to Nigeria’s Independence and Southerners made up of mainly the Yorubas and the Igbos who supported immediate independence for Nigeria. The riot that lasted for four days claimed many lives of the Southerners and Northerners and many others were wounded.
Causes of the riot
The remote cause of the riot was the strained relationship between the Northern and Southern political leaders over the issue of self-government in 1956. This strained relationship started with a 1953 motion for self-government for Nigeria in 1956 tabled in the House of Representatives by a member of the Action Group (AG), Chief Anthony Enahoro. The Northerners did not accept the motion. The leader of the Northern People’s Congress (NPC) and the Sardauna of Sokoto, Alhaji Ahmadu Bello, in a counter-motion, replaced “in the year 1956” with the phrase “as soon as practicable”. Another Northern member of the House moved a motion for adjournment, a motion which Southern members of AG and the National Council of Nigeria and the Cameroons (NCNC) viewed as a delay tactic. All the AG and NCNC members in the house walked out as a result of the adjournment motion.
When the Northern delegates left the House, they were confronted by hostile crowds in Lagos who insulted, jeered and called them all sorts of names. Members of the Northern delegation were embittered and in their “Eight-Point Program” in the Northern Regional Legislative House, they sought for secession. The last straw that broke the camel’s back was the tour by a delegation of the AG and NCNC led by Chief Samuel Akintola. That tour which was aimed at campaigning for self-government acted as the immediate cause of the Kano riot. It sparked off a chain of disorder that culminated in the riot. The riot took place at Sabon Gari an area predominantly occupied by southern Nigerians.
Political Implications of the riot
The riot left behind great effects which include:
- The relationship between North and South deteriorated.
- Action Group and the National Council of Nigeria and the Cameroons went into temporary alliance against the Northern People’s Congress thus bridging relationships.
- Granting of greater regional autonomy to the three regions.
- Removal of power of intervention by the centre in all residual matters
- Sir Oliver Lyttelton, the Secretary of State for the Colonies, announced that the regions can’t work together, and therefore representatives from each region will be invited to discuss a new Nigerian constitution.
- it led to the adoption of a federal system of government.
Eastern Region Constitution 1953
The National Council of Nigerian and Cameroon (NCNC) majority turned itself into an opposition and as such killed the bills that were brought to it including the appropriation bill. The governor had to use his reserve powers to decree appropriation for the running of the government. The crisis arose because the internal split and power struggle within NCNC. In the first place, the party members from Lagos failed to elect their party leader Dr Nnamdi Azikiwe into the House of Representatives in Lagos. In the second place, the party leaders did not agree on whether or not they should continue to support the MacPherson Constitution. The party members who were holding ministerial positions supported it while others did not. Later, the party central ministers were expelled. But some regional ministers did not support the expulsion and there were moves to reshuffle the posts of the regional ministers to replace the six expelled ministers at the centre. This brought about the crisis when the six withdrew their original letters of resignation to make the reshuffling possible. When it became impossible to carry on the business of the house, the House was dissolved on May 6, 1953.
The aftereffect of the crisis are mainly three:
On February 23, 1953, the National Independent Party (NIP) was formed in the Eastern Region by the expelled regional and central ministers and their supporters outside. In the new government that was elected in 1953, the NCNC formed the government and the NIP the opposition.
Secondly, the efforts of the Cameroon’s representatives in the Eastern Region for Cameroon’s autonomy from the East were intensified.
Finally, the third effect of the crisis is the general loss of confidence in democratic institutions, not only in the East but also in the whole country. People generally became disillusioned about these institutions.
Census Crisis of 1962/63
Crisis was one common feature of the first republic. In that period, Nigeria witnessed the seek of crises that rocked the foundation of the new independent state. One of such crisis that threatened the corporate existence and unity of Nigeria was the explosive issue of census of 1962/ 63. Population census is a contentious issue in Nigeria because population figures are used as the basis for sharing of national cake and determination of other electoral issues. There was a country-wide population censi conducted in May 1962. This population census was politicized mainly because the 1952 census gave the Northern region comfortable majority seats of 9 in the House of Representatives while Southern Region combined got 2 seats. The May 1962 census was therefore viewed as an opportunity to control the House of Representatives in Lagos. The 1962 census figures were never officially published as a result of alleged rigging but the figures leaked out. The unofficial figures that were published in newspapers showed a tremendous increase in the population of the East and West and decrease in that of the North. The Minister of Economic Development dismissed the figures as inauthentic and castigated the Eastern Region on the floor of the House of Representatives and accused them of intentionally falsifying the census figures. The census controversy paralysed the Federal parliament for three days and the country was in danger of collapse. The situation was saved by the timely intervention of the Prime Minister, Sir Abubakar who promised to take up the matter with the Regional Premiers. When the Prime Minister and Regional Premiers met on February 19, 1963, they agreed that the 1962 census figures be nullified and a fresh one be held toward the end of 1963. As a result, a census board was set up to conduct another census. A new census was conducted in November: 1963 and in February 1964 the provisional figure that put the population of Nigeria at 55.7 million were published. A breakdown of the figures gave the North 29.8 million, East 12.4 million, West 102 million, Mid-West 2.5 million and Lagos 0.7 million.
Action Group Crisis
During 1960 and 1961, fundamental tensions in the Action Group had begun to crystallise and then to surface. To a significant degree, the brewing crisis stemmed from the staggering defeat of the Action Group in the 1959 Federal Elections, which left Chief Awolowo stranded in opposition at the centre without a firm base of power resources and at the same time compelled him to devise a fresh strategy for building a national political majority. Defeat led him to more strident opposition, while convincing his party’s more conservative businessmen and traditional rulers of the futility of political pursuits beyond their region. Increasingly, the party found itself sharply divided over ideology, political strategy and party control between the rival factions of Party Leader Obafemi Awolowo and Regional Premier Samuel Ladoke Akintola.
Nigeria Civil War 1967-1970
The Nigerian Civil War, also known as the Nigerian-Biafran War, was a three-year bloody conflict with a death toll numbering more than one million people. Having commenced seven years after Nigeria gained independence from Britain, the war began with the secession of the southeastern region of the nation on May 30, 1967, when it declared itself the independent Republic of Biafra. The ensuing battles and well-publicized human suffering prompted international outrage and intervention.
Carved out of the west of Africa by Britain without regard for preexisting ethnic, cultural and linguistic divisions, Nigeria has often experienced an uncertain peace. Following decades of ethnic tension in colonial Nigeria, political instability reached a critical mass among independent Nigeria’s three dominant ethnic groups: the Hausa-Fulani in the north, Yoruba in the southwest, and Igbo in the southeast. On January 15, 1966, the Igbo launched a coup d’état under the command of Major-General Johnson Thomas Umunnakwe Aguiyi-Ironsi in an attempt to save the country from what Igbo leaders feared would be political disintegration.
Shortly after the successful coup, widespread suspicion of Igbo domination was aroused in the north among the Hausa-Fulani Muslims, many of whom opposed independence from Britain. Similar suspicions of the Igbo junta grew in the Yoruba west, prompting a joint Yoruba and Hausa-Fulani countercoup against the Igbo six months later. Countercoup leader General Yakubu Gowon took punitive measures against the Igbo. Further anger over the murder of prominent Hausa politicians led to the massacre of scattered Igbo populations in northern Hausa-Fulani regions. This persecution triggered the move by Igbo separatists to form their nation of Biafra the following year.
Less than two months after Biafra declared its independence, diplomatic efforts to resolve the crisis fell apart. On July 6, 1967, the federal government in Lagos launched a full-scale invasion into Biafra. Expecting a quick victory, the Nigerian army surrounded and buffeted Biafra with aerial and artillery bombardment that led to large scale losses among Biafran civilians. The Nigerian Navy also established a sea blockade that denied food, medical supplies and weapons, again impacting Biafran soldiers and civilians alike.
Despite the lack of resources and international support, Biafra stood firm refusing to surrender in the face of overwhelming Nigerian military superiority. The Nigerian Army, however, continued to slowly take territory, and on January 15, 1970, Biafra surrendered when its military commander General Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu fled to Cote d’Ivoire.
During this civil war, an estimated 3,000 to 5,000 people died daily in Biafra from starvation as a result of the naval blockade.
SSS3 First Term Final Assessment
Top of Form
- NPC ruled Northern Nigeria between(1951-1965).
- The leader of AG was?
- ___________ was the first political party in Northern Nigeria. Founded in Kano on 8 August 1950?
- The leader of NPC was?
- NPC was formed in the year?
- The majority of the leaders of NPN were from the former?
- Alhaji Ibrahim Waziri was the leader of?
- _____ was founded and led by Chief Obafemi Awolowo during second Republic.?
- ________ won the 1979 and 1983 second Republic Presidential election?
- _________ was the party to announce its existence after the lifting of the ban on political activities in 1978 and also won Gubernatorial Election in Kwara state in 1983?
- The PRP was founded in?
- ________ was launched on Oct 13, 1978 ?
- _____ was formed by Alhaji Ibrahim Waziri. Who left NPP?
- __________ was founded by Mallam Aminu Kano?
- _______ was a minor party and succeeded in winning the governorship election in only two states (Kano and Kaduna) in 1979?
- SDP was created in 1980s/1990s era?
Laborum consequuntur cum saepe in quo occaecati.?
Sit sunt aut impedit minima.?
- NRC promoted participatory democracy at all levels of government between 1991 and 1993?
Ex quam doloribus rerum quam voluptas nostrum.?
Quia commodi ipsa porro culpa velit.?
- The National Republican Convention was a Nigerian political party established by the government of General Sanni Abacha?
Quis ut rerum minus sed nisi voluptatem.?
Ipsa ut doloremque et quo.?
- SDP was created by former President Ibrahim Babangida via a democracy project meant to form two detribalized political parties – one slightly to the left and one to the right?
Voluptas magnam asperiores sed voluptas totam.?
Illo accusantium unde non id accusantium et.?
- SDP means Social Democracy Party?
Ducimus et cupiditate placeat enim itaque.?
Non illo eos vitae et.?
- _______ was founded by Bola Tinubu in 2006, chairman by Adebisi Akande?
- ______ took part in 1999 and 2003 general elections throughout the country and won seats in the National Assembly, states Assemblies and Local government election?
- _________ was originally founded as the All people’s party (APP) in September 1998 by 14 Igbo and Hausa/Fulani political associations?
- _______ was formed in August 1998, in the wake of the democratic era in Nigeria by members of the organisations, who came together to oppose the military regime of General Sani Abacha?
- AD means Alliance for Democracy?
Reprehenderit quis veritatis ut et rem cum.?
Dicta et doloremque ex itaque.?
- The remote cause of Kano riot was the strained relationship between the Northern and Southern political leaders over the issue of self-government in 1956?
Qui quibusdam et eaque rem eius velit.?
Accusantium est maiores eligendi id iure.?
- The Nigerian Civil War is also known as the Nigerian-Biafran War?
Odit laudantium unde temporibus.?
Et error sit saepe architecto quas est.?
- The Nigerian Biafra war occur within how many years?
- The Countercoup leader was?
General Yakubu Gowon
General Ibrahim Babangida
General Olusegun Obasanjo
General Mohammed Buhari
- The 1962 census figures were never officially published as a result of alleged rigging but the figures leaked out?
Repudiandae non error sint.?
Dolor tempora perferendis non rerum provident at.?
Bottom of Form
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