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SS3 Government Lesson Note (Second Term) 2023

The lesson note for SS3 Government Second Term is now available for Tutors, parents, guardians and students who have been searching for an accurate and updated 2023 note.

Please note that the Second Term lesson note is curled out from the approved scheme of work for Senior Secondary school. So you can do your verification as well and compare the Second Term lesson note for SS3 Government as seen on the free PDF file made available towards the end of this post.

SS3 Government Lesson Note (Second Term) [year] 1

The SS3 Government lesson note for Second Term is in line with the 2023 SS3 Government scheme of work for the term. This means the SS3 Government lesson note is tailored towards achieving the aim and objective for the subject as mandated by the ministry of education.

SS3 Government Second Term Lesson Note 2023

  SS3 SECOND TERM GOVERNMENT LESSON NOTE

SCHEME

WEEK 1 & 2 – ECONOMIC COMMUNITY OF WEST AFRICAN STATES (ECOWAS)

WEEK 3 & 4 – ORGANISATION OF PETROLEUM EXPORTING COUNTRIES (OPEC)

WEEK 5 – MILLENIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS (MDGs) AND NEW ECONOMIC PARTNERSHIP FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT (NEPAD)

WEEK 6 – E- GOVERNMENT LEADERSHIP AND FOLLOWERSHIP

 

WEEK 1 & 2

ECONOMIC COMMUNITY OF WEST AFRICAN STATES (ECOWAS)

The organisation established at May 28, 1975. It was founded through the initiatives of two African leaders – General Yakubu Gowon of Nigeria and Gnasingbe Eyadema of Togo. The headquarters of the organisation is in Abuja, Nigeria. It is a sub regional economization ECOWAS is made up of 15 countries with the withdrawal of Mauritania some of the countries are as follows: Nigeria, Benin Republic, Cape Verde, Gambia, Ghana, Mali, Guinea Bissau etc.

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF ECOWAS

  1. To promote co-operation and development in all field of industry, transport, energy agriculture etc.
  2. To eliminate customs duties and other charges in respect of the importation and exportation of goods between member countries,
  3. To abolish administrative restrictions on trade among member states.
  4. To remove obstacles to free movement of people, services and capital among member states.
  5. To harmonize agricultural policies and promote common projects in marketing research and agro industrial enterprises.
  6. To establish a common fun for c-operation, compensation and development
  7. To harmonise monetary policies of members states through integrating the economic and industrial policies.
  8. To establish a common tariff against non-member states.
  9. To harmonise the economic and industrial policies of member state and eliminate disparity in the level of development of member state.

ACHIEVEMENT OF ECOWAS

  1. Removal of obstacles placed on all goods and services within the sub-region headquarters of the organisation is in London.
  2. Proposals for greater structrural integration such as in the area of transport and communication are at advance stages.
  3. The road network project such as the one planned to link Lagos with Noukchott the capitalof Maritania is now in progress.
  4. There has been free movement of people, goods and services in West-Africa.
  5. There exist greater economy collaboration and some traditional barriers to trade investment have been removed.
  6. It has brought together under a common aspiration the Anglophone and Fracophone country, and there has been a relative increase volume of trade among them.
  7. It established the Eco Bank in 1984 to facilitate financial dealings among business men of member state.

EVALUATION

Highlight 3 achievements of ECOWAS.

 

 

WEEK 3 & 4

ORGANISATION OF PETROLEUM EXPORTING COUNTRIES (OPEC)

Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries is a body that was established in 1960 by five top oil-exporting countries, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Venezuela to enable them to adopt uniform policies towards oil-importing countries. The organisation is an international economic organisation formed by some petroleum producing countries to stabilize and control the world production and price of crude oil.

The aims of the organisation:

  • To eliminate fluctuations in the price of the products
  • To ensure a steady income to the oil-producing countries
  • To ensure stability in the price of petroleum in the international market
  • To coordinate the member countries and safeguard the interest of the members
  • To regulate the supply of the petroleum industry

The Role of OPEC in the Production, Refining, and Marketing of Petroleum Products in Nigeria

  1. OPEC ensures that the price of petroleum does not decline excessively.
  2. The member countries have the strength of the reserves to cope with the forecast rises in demand.
  3. It encourages the development of commercial, industrial, and domestic fields.
  4. It stabilizes the price of petroleum products.
  5. It enables the steady supply of petroleum products.
  6. To ensure the eradication of poverty and sustainable growth and development in the member countries.
  7. OPEC ensures that the supply of natural resources is exploited in a proper manner.

Achievements of OPEC

  • Influence in determining oil product price
  • It helps to control foreign oil companies operating in the territories of the member nations.
  • It has succeeded in assisting members to formulate petroleum policies
  • To put in place funds for international development in third world nations that would help development and growth
  • OPEC existence has achieved trade relationships among member states.
  • It has helped to protect the interest of member states.

Problems of OPEC

  1. Political disagreement among members have negative effects on the organisation
  2. The activity of developed nations in stockpiling oil is causing a fall in the price
  3. The global economic depression is contributing to price fluctuations
  4. Dishonesty among members state
  5. Non-member states’ activities undermine the effectiveness of the       organisation.
  6. Rivalry for the leadership of the organisation has negative effects on the progress of operation
  7. Non-compliance of member countries on the quota as given by the organisation.

Solutions to Some of the Problems of OPEC

  1. The organisation should maintain a stable price in order to avoid price fluctuations.
  2. The organisation should fix production quota for its members.
  3. OPEC should sanction members that sidetrack the agreed quota
  4. The organisation should create unity among members
  5. OPEC should rotate the key posts among its members to avoid rivalry and disagreement

 

 

Economic Terms in the Petroleum Industry

Economic Terms in the Petroleum Industry include Oil Boom, Petroleum Oil glut, Oil Shock, the Upstream sector, the Downstream sector, Onshore Operation, Offshore operation, etc.

The Onshore Operation has to do with all production activities on the sea in ensuring that crude oil is moved from the sea to the land

The Offshore Operation has to do with all production activities on the land e.g offshore drilling rig.

The Downstream sector is the sector of the oil and gas industry that deals with the refining of crude oil for domestic consumption. This sector provides Petrol, Automated gas, diesel, kerosene.

The Upstream sector is also known as the exploration and production sector. Upstream is a term for the exploration and production stages in the oil and gas industry. It includes searching for potential underground or underwater crude oil and natural gas fields or exploratory wells and drilling and operating the wells that bring the crude oil in its raw form to the surface.

Petroleum oil glut: A situation in the global oil market where there is an oversupply of petroleum products leading to a decline or crash in the price of oil.

Oil shock: Is used to explain a situation in which the demand for oil is equal to its supply.

Evaluation Questions

  1. A cartel is a monopolistic type of organisation established by producers of similar products for the purpose of restricting output of members. Explain the objectives of OPEC as a cartel
  2. Discuss the contribution of petroleum to Nigeria economy

 

 

WEEK 5

TOPIC: MILLENIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS (MDGs) AND NEW ECONOMIC PARTNERSHIP FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT (NEPAD)

CONTENT

  1. (i). Meaning of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). (ii)Towards achieving Millennium Development Goals in 2015.
  2. New Economic Partnership for Economic Development (NEPAD): (i) Meaning (ii) Aims and Objectives.

SUB-TOPIC 1: MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS (MDGs).

  1. MEANING OF MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS (MDGS).

In September 2000, leaders from 189 nations of the World agreed on a vision for the future: a world with less poverty, hunger and disease, greater survival prospects for mothers and their infants, better educated children, equal opportunity for women and a healthier environment, a world in which developed and developing countries of the world worked in partnership for the betterment of all.

The aim of the MDGs is to encourage development by improving social and economic conditions in the World’s poorest countries. They derived this initiative from earlier development targets and were officially established following the millennium summit in 2000, where all World leaders present adopted United Notions Millennium Declaration.

 

  1. Aims and Objectives of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)
  2. Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger.
    Recent economic growth, particularly in agriculture, has markedly reduced the proportion of underweight children, from 35.7 per cent in 1990 to 23.1 per cent in 2008.
    However, growth has not generated enough jobs and its effect on poverty is not yet clear (the most recent data is from 2004). The available data and the current policy environment suggest that the target will be difficult to meet.
    Growth needs to be more equitable and broad-based. Developing agriculture and creating jobs will require the public sector to create an enabling environment for business, including building critical infrastructure, making regulatory services transparent and providing sustainable access to enterprise finance. Social protection and poverty eradication programmes need to be scaled-up and better coordinated.

GOAL 2
Achieve Universal Primary Education
In a major step forward, nearly nine out of ten children, 88.8 per cent, are now enrolled in school. Nevertheless, regional differences are stark. State primary completion rates range from 2 per cent to 99 per cent. In particular, progress needs to be accelerated in the north of the country if the target is to be met.
Low completion rates reflect poor learning environments and point to the urgent need to raise teaching standards. The rapid improvement in youth literacy, from 64.1 per cent to 80 per cent between 2000 and 2008, appears to have reached a plateau.
The Universal Basic Education Scheme is a promising initiative that needs to be reformed and strengthened. The Federal Teachers’ Scheme and in-service training by the National Teachers’ Institute have begun to address the urgent need to improve the quality of teaching. To accelerate progress and reduce regional disparities, these initiatives need to be rapidly expanded and improved.

GOAL 3
Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women
A gradual improvement in the proportion of girls enrolled in primary school, though noteworthy, is not yet enough to meet the target. There are still fewer girls than boys in school. There are signs of backsliding in the number of girls in tertiary education.
Measures to encourage girls to attend school, particularly by addressing cultural barriers in the north of the country, and to provide the economic incentives for boys to attend school in the south-east, are urgently required.
Although few women currently hold political office, the new policy framework is encouraging. However, gradual gains in parliamentary representation for women need to be greatly expanded in forthcoming elections.
Confronting regional variations in the determinants of gender inequality requires policies based on an understanding of the underlying socioeconomic, social and cultural factors. State and local government efforts will thus be critical to the achievement of this goal.

GOAL 4
Reduce Child Mortality
Progress in reducing child mortality has been rapid. With sustained effort and improvement in related and lagging sectors, such as water and sanitation, there is a strong possibility of achieving Goal 4 by 2015.
Under-five mortality has fallen by over a fifth in five years, from 201 deaths per 1,000 live births in 2003, to 157 deaths per 1,000 live births in 2008.
In the same period, the infant mortality rate fell even faster, from 100 to 75 deaths per 1,000 live births.
Recent interventions – including Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses – that reflect the underlying causes of child deaths, have contributed to these successes.
However, these need to be rapidly expanded and accelerated if Nigeria is to achieve Goal 4. Access to primary health care needs to be improved by more investment in infrastructure, human resources, equipment and consumables, and better management. Implementation arrangements must target local needs, which vary hugely from community to community and state to state. Routine immunization is unsatisfactory but can be rapidly improved by building on the successes of the near-eradication of polio.

GOAL 5
Improve Maternal Health

Recent progress towards this Goal is promising and, if the latest improvements can be sustained at the same rate, Nigeria will reach the target by 2015.
Maternal mortality fell by 32 per cent, from 800 deaths per 100,000 live births in 2003 (at the time one of the highest maternal mortality rates in the world) to 545 deaths per 100,000 live births in 2008.
However, the proportion of births attended by a skilled health worker has remained low and threatens to hold back further progress.
Government commitment is not in doubt. An innovative Midwives Service Scheme is expected to contribute substantially to ongoing shortfalls but its impact has yet to be reflected in the data. If the scheme is expanded in proportion to the national gap in the number of midwives, this will further accelerate progress.
In addition, more mothers will be covered by antenatal care as access to quality primary healthcare improves and incentives attract health workers to rural areas, indicating that Nigeria will turn progress to date on this goal into a MDG success story.

GOAL 6
Combat HIV-AIDS, Malaria and Other Diseases
Nigeria has had striking success in almost eradicating polio, reducing the number of cases by 98 per cent between 2009 and 2010.
Another marked success was the fall in the prevalence of HIV among pregnant young women aged 15-24 from 5.8 per cent in 2001 to 4.2 per cent in 2008. Thus, nationally, Nigeria has already achieved this target. However, some states still have high prevalence rates that require urgent policy attention. Successes have been buoyed by better awareness and use of contraceptives.
There has been a sharp decrease in malaria prevalence rates. Nationwide distribution of 72 million long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets, although only in its initial stages, protected twice as many children (10.9 per cent) in 2009, compared to 2008 (5.5 per cent).
Similar progress has been made with tuberculosis. With sustained attention, tuberculosis is expected to be a limited public health burden by 2015.
To consolidate and extend progress on Goal 6, challenges that need to be addressed include improving knowledge and awareness of HIV/AIDS, improving access to antiretroviral therapies, and effective implementation of the national strategic frameworks for HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis control.

GOAL 7
Ensure Environmental Sustainability
Nigeria’s natural resources, some of its most valuable national assets, are still seriously threatened. For example, between 2000 and 2010 the area of forest shrank by a third, from 14.4 per cent to 9.9 per cent of the land area.
Similarly, access to safe water and sanitation is a serious challenge for Nigeria. Little progress was made up to 2005 but improvements since then have brought the proportion of the population accessing safe water to 58.9 per cent and the proportion accessing improved sanitation to 51.6 per cent.
The major challenge lies in translating substantial public investments in water into effective access. This requires more involvement by communities to identify local needs, and better planning to deliver holistic and sustainable solutions. In sanitation, efforts are falling short of the target. Rural-urban migration will add to the pressure on sanitation infrastructure throughout the country. It is doubtful that town planning authorities have made adequate preparations for sustainable housing and sanitation.
There is an urgent need for managerial, technical and financial resources to deal with these challenges to be established at state and local government levels. Given the risks of over-exploitation of groundwater in the North and the influx of saline water in the South, innovative solutions are required across the country

GOAL 8
Develop a Global Partnership for Development
Debt relief negotiated by Nigeria in 2005 provided new opportunities for investment in the social sector. Debt servicing fell from 15.2 per cent of exports in 2005 to 0.5 per cent in 2008.
To build on these positive developments there is a need to take action to forestall a relapse into unsustainable levels of debt that could prevent the country from achieving the MDGs.
The outlook for the broader partnership for development is not as bright. Trade agreements continue to be inequitable and constrain exports and economic growth. Development assistance has grown although, when debt relief is excluded, it is still very low on a per capita basis.
Improving the quality of human and capital resources available is critical to attracting the foreign direct investment that is needed to contribute to development.
As a result of the deregulation of the telecommunications sector in 2001, the proportion of the population with access to mobile telephones increased from 2 per cent to 42 per cent between 2000 and 2008. However, this has yet to bridge the digital divide and only 15.8 per cent of the population currently has access to the internet.

EVALUATION:

  1. Explain  Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).
  2. Mention any five of the goals.

SUB-TOPIC 2: NEW ECONOMIC PARTNERSHIP FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT (NEPAD): (I) MEANING (II) AIMS AND OBJECTIVES.

  1. MEANING OF NEPAD.

It is a holistic, comprehensive and integrated strategic framework for the socio-economic development of Africa. The NEPAD DOCUMENT provides the vision for Africa, a statement of the problems facing the continent and a Programme of Action to resolve these problems in order to reach the objectives.

The New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) is the vision and strategic framework adopted by African leaders to address poverty and underdevelopment throughout the African continent. Its broad approach was initially agreed at the 36th Heads of State and Government Assembly of the Organization of African Unity (OAU) held in Algeria, in 2000. The meeting asked Algeria, Egypt, Nigeria, Senegal and South Africa to develop an integrated socio-economic framework for Africa. Subsequently, the 37th Summit of the OAU held in Lusaka, Zambia in July 2001 formally endorsed NEPAD as the framework for the continent’s development. In January 2010, the 14th African Union (AU) Summit strengthened the NEPAD programme by endorsing its integration into the AU.

The Secretary-General established the Office of the Special Adviser on Africa (OSAA) to increase international support for NEPAD, to coordinate UN system efforts in support of NEPAD and to report annually to the General Assembly on progress in the implementation of  international support for NEPAD.

WHO INITIATED NEPAD?
President T Mbeki of South Africa
President A Bouteflika of Algeria
President O Obasanjo of Nigeria
President Abdoulaye Wade of Senegal
President Mohammed Hosni Mubarak of Egypt .These five Presidents (or their personal representatives) also form the Steering Committee of NEPAD.

STRUCTURE OF NEPAD.

The HSGIC to which the NEPAD secretariat reports comprises three states for each region of the African Union, with former President Obasanjo (Nigeria) as elected chair, and Presidents Bouteflika (Algeria) and Wade (Senegal) as deputy chairmen. The HSGIC meets several times a year and reports to the AU Assembly of Heads of State and Government.

There is also a steering committee, comprising 20 AU member states, to oversee projects and program development.

The NEPAD Secretariat is based in Midrand, South Africa. The first CEO was Wiseman Nkuhlu of South Africa (2001–2005), and the second Mozambican Firmino Mucavele (2005–2008). On April 1, 2009, Ibrahim Hassane Mayaki accepted the position as the 3rd CEO.

The NEPAD Secretariat is not responsible for the implementation of development programs itself, but works with the African Regional Economic Communities — the building blocks of the African Union. The role of the NEPAD Secretariat is one of coordination and resource mobilisation.

Many individual African states have also established national NEPAD structures responsible for liaison with the continental initiatives on economic reform and development programs.

  1. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF NEPAD.

 

The main objective of NEPAD is to eradicate poverty in Africa and to place African countries, both individually and collectively, on a path of sustainable growth and development, to thus halt the marginalisation of Africa in the globalisation process.

The eight priority areas of NEPAD are: political, economic and corporate governance; agriculture; infrastructure; education; health; science and technology; market access and tourism; and environment.

During the first few years of its existence, the main task of the NEPAD Secretariat and key supporters was the popularization of NEPAD’s key principles, as well as the development of action plans for each of the sectional priorities. NEPAD also worked to develop partnerships with international development finance institutions—including the World Bank, G8, European Commission, UNECA and others—and with the private sector.

After this initial phase, more concrete programs were developed, including:

  • The Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP), aimed at assisting the launching of a ‘green revolution’ in Africa, based on a belief in the key role of agriculture in development.
  • The NEPAD Science and Technology programme, including an emphasis on research in areas such as water science and energy.
  • The “e-schools programme”, adopted by the HSGIC in 2003 as an initiative to equip all 600,000 primary and secondary schools in Africa with ITequipment and internet access within 10 years, in partnership with several large IT companies. See NEPAD E-School program
  • The launch of a Pan African Infrastructure Development Fund (PAIDF) by the Public Investment Corporation of South Africa, to finance high priority cross-border infrastructure projects.
  • Capacity building for continental institutions, working with the African Capacity Building Foundation, the Southern Africa Trust, UNECA, the African Development Bank, and other development partners. One of NEPAD’s priorities has been to strengthen the capacity of and linkages among the Regional Economic Communities.
  • NEPAD was involved with the Timbuktu Manuscripts Projectalthough it is not entirely clear to what extent.

EVALUATION:

  1. What is the full meaning of NEPAD?
  2. List four pioneer founders of NEPAD.

GENERAL EVALUATION:

  1. State the main objective of NEPAD.
  2. What are the other objectives of NEPAD?
  3. Explain  Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).
  4. Mention any five of the goals.
  5. List any five member countries of NEPAD.

WEEKEND ASSSIGNMENT:

  1. NEPAD means  (a) New Economic Partnership for Economic Development (b) National  Partnership for Economic Demand (c) Nigerian Economic Planning and Essential Development (d) New Economic Planning for European Development
  2. Which of the following is not part of Millennium Development Goals? (a) Reduction of mortality rate (b) Improvement on maternal  health (c) Combat HIV/AIDS and malaria (d) Arrange for re-union of divorced couples
  3. Which of the following Head of States is not a foundation member of NEPAD?   (a) President T Mbeki of South Africa (b) President A Bouteflika of Algeria
    (c) President Barak Obama of USA  (d) President Olusegun Obasanjo of Nigeria
  4. The NEPAD Secretariatis based in ….. (a) Abuja, Nigeria (b) Midrand, South Africa (c) Accra, Ghana (d) Lome, Togo
  5. The first CEO was ….. (a) Kwame Nkruma of Ghana (b) Nuhu Ribadu of Nigeria (c)  Wiseman Nkuhlu of South Africa (d) Okonjo Eweala of Nigeria
  6. The vision for the Millennium Development Goals came into being in year  (a) 1999 (b) 2002 (c) 2000 (d) 2015
  7. The target of the realization of the Millennium Development Goals is (a) 2001 (b) 2040 (c) 2015 (d) 2020

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT: Read the New Analytical Study of Government for Senior Secondary Schools by Sola Adu (2012) Emadet Publications, Ibadan. Pages 384 – 386.

 

PRE – READING ASSIGNMENT: Read about the e – government before next class.

 

WEEKEND ACTIVITY: Find out the full meaning of the following abbreviations.

  1. MDGs
  2. NEPAD
  • CAADP
  1. CEO

 

 

 

WEEK 6

TOPIC: E-Government.

CONTENT   

(a) Meaning: Use of computers or ICT in government business or Activities.

(b)   Areas: Nigerian Immigration Service, Nigerian Custom Services, Federal Inland   Revenue Service (FIRS), JAMB, WAEC, NECO.

(c) Other Uses: website, e-mail, network of offices.

(d) Advantages and disadvantages.

 

SUB – TOPIC 1: Meaning: Use of Computers or ICT in Government Business or Activities.

E-Government refers to the use of information technology by government agencies (such as relations with citizens, business and other arms of government). Traditionally, the interactions between a citizen or business and a government agent took place in a government office. With emerging information and communication technologies, it is possible to locate service centre close to the clients. It can thus be said that e-government is a tool to achieve better governance.

Project Nationwide Operational Assessment of Hazards (Project NOAH) This is a responsive program for disaster prevention and mitigation providing a 6-hour lead-time warning to vulnerable communities against impending floods. The project makes use of radar, Doppler, and other sensing technologies to map out rainfall, and other geo-hazards such as landslides. The project’s use of Internet technologies, social media, and its collaboration with the country’s top mobile phone service providers maximizes the potentials of ICT for crisis management, disaster preparedness, mitigation and response.

  • eSerbisyoThese are government online websites that cater to general the general public for information, government forms, government services and weather.
  • eBayadThis is an electronic payment gateway for government agencies using various internet payment options like credit cards and mobile wallets to enable Filipinos to pay online for requested government services taken from eSerbisyo.

                      Uses of Information and Communication Technology.

  1. It can be used to store vital information about the members of staff of government establishment.
  2. It can be used to store vital information about government activities instead of carrying files about.
  • Workers in government establishments can be educated through the ICT.
  1. It can be used to check necessary messages from time to time e.g. e-mail.
  2. It will enable all citizens, enterprises and organizations to carry out their businesses with government more easily, and at lowest cost.
  3. It is used for demonstration and presentation of materials and important information of ideas between the various offices concerned e.g. internet, network of offices, for interaction and collaboration.

ICTs are crucially important for sustainable development in developing countries. For the last two decades most developed countries have witnessed significant changes that can be traced to ICTs. These multi-dimensional changes have been observed in almost all aspects of life: economics, education, communication, and travel. In a technology-driven society, getting information quickly is important for both sender and receiver. ICTs have made it possible to quickly find and distribute information. Many initiatives have taken at the international level to support Africa’s efforts to develop a communication infrastructure and these efforts are designed to enable African countries, including Nigeria, to find faster ways to achieve durable and sustainable development.

  • Of the technological changes that have influenced our lives in recent years, information technology (IT) has had the greatest impact. This will continue at least until the end of the first half of the century, when other major technological breakthroughs in the area of new materials, biotechnology, or energy, may provide entirely new ways of living.
  • An information society is one that makes the best possible use of ICTs. It is a society in which the quality of life, as well as prospects for social change and economic development, depends increasingly upon information and its exploitation. In such a society, living standards, patterns of work and leisure, the education system, and marketplace are all influenced by advances in information and knowledge. This is evidenced by an increasing array of information-intensive products and services.
  • The information society is a way for human capacity to be expanded, built up, nourished, and liberated by giving people access to tools and technologies, with the education and training to use them effectively. There is a unique opportunity to connect and assist those living in the poorest and most isolated regions of the world. Informatization of society is a major hurdle that most nations, especially developing countries, are encountering. The information society or information age is a phenomenon that began after 1950, which brings challenges as we seek to integrate and expand the universe of print and multimedia sources. The two terms are often used to describe a cybernetic society in which there is a great dependence on the use of computers and data transmission linkages to generate and transmit information.
  • The African Information Society (AISI) document (2005) argues that Africa should build, by the year 2010, an information society in which every man, woman, child, village, public and private sector office has secured access to the use of computers and telecommunications media. The objective is to provide every African with the possibility of using the communication and data processing services available everywhere else, just

Other Offices Where Information And Communication Technology  Can Be Used.

  • Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS): It can be used to store monitor the issuance of the Nigerian passports as well as movement of people in and out of the country.
  • Nigerian Customs Service (NCS): it can be used to store information about the movement of goods and services entering and leaving Nigeria.
  • Power  Holding Company of Nigeria(PHCN): the establishment can use it to assess tariffs and print  bills for customers.
  • Federal Inland Revenue Service (FRIS): It is useful in the assessment of tax as well as getting necessary data of tax records as well as checking wrong assessment of tax.
  • JAMB, WAEC, NECO:- It is useful for teachers and students to check necessary information about these examination bodies. Students  can use the ICT to check their results.
  • It can also be used in the Civil Service including teaching service. When necessary information on members of staff can be stored, checked and updated from time to time. It can also be used to teach students in the school through e-learning.

 

 

 

           ICTs for Informing Citizens

  • One of the identified agents through which the world will constantly experience change is technology. In the business of trying to make information available in the right form to the right user both at the personal and organizational levels, and at the right time, the bid to cope with great flood of information has led to the need for a more sophisticated way of handling information faster and better.
  • Information technology is “the use of man-made tools for the collection, generation, communication, recording, re-management and exploitation of information. It includes those applications and commodities, by which information is transferred, recorded, edited, stored, manipulated or disseminated”.  Information technology is a revolution which has penetrated almost all fields of human activity, thus transforming economic and social life. UNDP (2001) asserts that even if sustainable economic growth facilitates the creation and diffusion of useful innovations, technology is not only the result of growth but can be used to support growth and development. ICTs are credited with the ability to transform, and deep and significant changes are expected from their widespread use in Africa. From this stand point Africans can take maximum advantage of the new technologies even if major challenges remain. These challenges include adapting ICTs to local conditions and uses in developing countries, and allowing each country understand those innovations and adjust them to their own development needs.
  • Therefore, development in Nigeria depends on the country’s capacity to create wealth to significantly reduce poverty and to raise its capacity to create wealth at a sustainable level. In June 1996, the United Nations Commission on Science and Technology Development (UNCSTD) in collaboration with IDRC proposed five development indicators that focused on the improvement of the quality of life: education, health, income, governance, and technology. If we consider these five as key indicators of development for Nigeria, ICTs can be socially beneficial only if they contribute to poverty eradication (higher income), improved health and education, better use and more equitable sharing of resources, and raising participation in the decision-making processes (and in this regard, access to information is crucial).
  • ICTs have been the basis for human existence from time immemorial and this has driven man to continuously seek ways to improve the processing of information and communicating such information to one another irrespective of distance and on a real-time basis. Surviving in the information age depends on access to national and global information networks. ICTs are the bedrock for the survival and development of any nation in a rapidly changing global environment, and it challenges us to devise initiatives to address a host of issues such as reliable infrastructure, skilled human resources, open government, and other essential issues of capacity building.
  • At the heart of technology lie two main or branches of technology: computing and telecommunication. The technologies covered are the computer system, Internet/electronic mail (e-mail), mobile phone, and fax machine.

(a)  Computers

  • Computers were originally used by scientists for calculating numbers, and have gradually become useful in offices and industries. In recent times, simplified models that can be used by almost everybody have become common in schools and homes for accomplishing many varied tasks and applications.
  • The uses that computers are now commonly put to include  writing letters, and reports, printing books, newspapers, and magazines, drawing pictures and diagrams, doing statistics, mathematics and handling financial records, controlling traffic lights, flying airplanes, making and playing music and video, sending messages anywhere in the world.
  • Internet

The Internet is a global collection of many types of computers and computer networks that are linked together. It is increasingly becoming the solution to many information, problems, information exchange, and marketing. The Internet is a mixture of many services with the two most commonly used being electronic mail (e-mail for short) and the World Wide Web (www). It plays a significant role in education, health, political processes, agriculture, economy, businesses and newsgroups. With Internet connectivity, one can do business all over the world without physical contact with the buyer or the need for a business intermediary.

  • E-mail

Electronic mail (e-mail) is the exchange of text messages and computer files transmitted via communications networks such as the Internet. The e-mail system is the equivalent of postal mailing services, with the biggest difference being the time and cost involved. And not only written data, but all sorts of information in the form of video, audio, or photographs, can be sent via e-mail. E-mail as an increasing popular method of communication, especially in the workplace.

  • Mobile Phones

Mobile phones are telephone systems that can move or be moved easily and quickly from place to place. Mobile phones were once the tool of rich and busy executives who could afford both the luxury. Mobile phones are now the ICT that is reshaping and revolutionizing the communications globally. Its impact on the economic activities of nations, businesses, and small entrepreneurs is phenomenal. The availability of this new technology has been reshaping the material basis of the society as well as bringing about a profound restructuring of economic, political, and cultural relations among states. Nigeria is not an exception.

  • Importance of information cannot be overemphasized. People need information to plan and carry out their decisions. More than 90 percent of Africa’s population could greatly benefit from information on better choice of food, safe water and basic nutrition, child care, family planning, immunization, prevention and control of endemic diseases. The combination of modern communication devices could play significant roles in the collection and dissemination of global information. Mobile telephony usage by individuals enables them to communicate with loved ones, clients and business associates. For large businesses, it is a means of providing a service that leads to an increase in profits. For governments, revenues are gained through taxes and duties. As a tool for sustainable livelihoods, mobile telephones provide employment for many who could have been idle.
  • Fax machine

Telefacsimile systems permit the transaction of images (photos, printed images, maps, drawings) and their reproduction on paper at a remote receiver. Facsimile (fax) is not a new service; however, advances in digital imaging technology and microelectronics have caused a sharp drop in prices with a significant increase in capacities “Long distance copying” might be an appropriate nickname for this telecommunication process. Any document, whether it is handwritten, contains pictures, diagrams, graphs, charts or typed text can be transmitted at a great speed for relatively low cost. The fax system is widely available; most organizations have at least one fax machine.

 

                   Advantages of e-Government.

  1. Information Exchange: The information target of internet has always been communication. Now we can exchange information in a fraction of second with a person who is sitting at the other part of the world.
  2. Services: many services are now provided on the internet such as on-line banking, job seeking, hotel reservation, and flight booking as well as guidance services on arrays of topics engulfing every aspects of life.
  3. Security: Securities when all entries are made as part of an integrated systems and fraud becomes difficult to perpetrate. There are inbuilt security codes on the internet that can prevent fraud.
  4. Storage space: computer has a very large storage space to store information. Every piece of information stored within the computer memory is encoded. Therefore, there is no need to carry files from one office to the other.
  5. Reliability: Computer operations are reliable, consistent and will not act in any erratic way. It does the job faithfully without deviating.
  6. E-commerce: Business transactions can be carried out from one office to the other. Services can be made available at our doorstep at any time.
  7. New Ideas: Government functionaries can learn new ideas that can make government business effective and it also saves cost and time sometimes.

 

DISADVANTAGES OF E-GOVERNMENT.

  1. Expensive: the cost of computer equipment, connection of telephone services can be high.
  2. Lack of control: There is no control on the quality of information available on the internet, therefore some information may not be accurate or might be highly offensive.
  • No security: Many schools, colleges, businesses, computer network and some vital information about the government or organizations may be exposed to the outside world.
  1. Viruses: There is also the possibility of downloading computer viruses that can harm data held in a computer for network and in the process some vital information may be lost in the process.
  2. Fraud: this is done by feeding the computer with wrong information in order to take undue advantage especially relating to financial matters.
  3. Awareness: Many offices are yet to be informed on the operation of e-government because much government lacked effective training and orientation of the system.

 

TOPIC: LEADERSHIP AND FOLLOWERSHIP.

CONTENT:      (a) Leadership: Meaning and Qualities.

  • Followership: Meaning and Qualities.
  • Roles of Politics and Government.

 

 

 

SUB – TOPIC 1: LEADERSHIP: Meaning and Qualities.

Meaning of Leadership: Leadership is essentially the converse of followership. Leadership is defined as the art of influencing and directing people in such a way that will win their obedience, confidence, respect, and loyal cooperation in achieving a common objective.

A leader is a person who guides and directs other people in order to achieve a given task. Leadership implies the ability to guide or influence people in a proper direction. Leadership is position a leader occupies to lead and guide other people to a desired goal. You cannot be a leader, and ask other people to follow you, unless you know how to follow, too.

This statement implies that leadership position is not exclusive but somebody that is a leader still has somebody ahead that he is following.  The leader must also act as a follower towards his or her superiors. There is always a level ordinate to a leader. Even the President is a follower; he is a follower of the will of the people of the United States. This is, in fact, the basis for the chain of command. Leaders receive feedback from their subordinates, or followers, and relay this information to the next-higher authority. Theoretically, this chain may continue indefinitely. Cooperation between the leader and his or her subordinate is crucial, or the chain will not function effectively. Therefore, a leader is concurrently a follower.

One of the most basic human instincts, a quality that every person is born with, is the act of imitating another person. Children often imitate behaviors as seen from their parents, friends, or the media. These influences determine the character that this particular child develops. As time progresses, imitation gives way to reasoning, opening the door for this person to start influencing others. The contrast between followership and leadership is analogous to this; once an individual is established as a follower, he or she can become a leader.

A cadet leader may have responsibilities such as a command position, a teaching position, or a representative position (cadet advisory council, for example). These leaders have the necessary experience, skill, and motivation to bear responsibilities that a follower might not be capable of handling. The qualities that have been developed through a cadet’s career must be maintained, as well. As mentioned previously, a follower imitates the behavior imposed upon him or her by his or her leader. The leader must act properly as a role model for the follower, evincing self-discipline, motivation, and responsibility to teach the correct procedure or behavior to the follower.

The differences between leadership and followership, then, are a process of learning and the time needed to gain experience in assigned responsibilities. Once a follower has demonstrated mastery of self-discipline, motivation, responsibility, and other important traits, he or she has the competence to become a successful leader and pass this wisdom on to future generations.

 

  Leadership Qualities.

A leader is said to be good and efficient when he/she has been assessed and these following qualities are found through his/her character.

  1. A leader must be disciplined.  He must do what is right always.
  2. He must live and lead by example so that his followers can emulate his good deeds.
  • He must be wise and knowledgeable.  He must know what to do per time when faced with challenges.
  1. He must be friendly with the people around him so that he can carry them along in the decision making.
  2. He must be punctual at work or at any position he may find himself. This is the hallmark of a good leader.
  3. He must be honest. He must be known for truth and stand by truth no matter the situation or whoever is involved.
  • He must not be corrupt. He should be accountable to the people that he is serving and be of exemplary character.

 

EVALUATION:

  1. Differentiate between a leader and leadership.
  2. What is different between a follower and followership?
  3. List and explain six qualities of a good leader and follower.
  4. Outline five consequences of bad leadership followership to the society.

SUB-TOPIC 2: FOLLOWERSHIP: Meaning and Qualities.

Meaning of Followership.

Followership refers to a role held by certain individuals in an organization, team, or group. Specifically, it is the capacity of an individual to actively follow a leader. Followership is the reciprocal social process of leadership. The study of followership is integral to a better understanding of leadership, as the success and failure of groups, organizations, and teams is not only dependent on how well a leader can lead, but also on how well the followers can follow. Specifically, followers play an active role in organization, group, and team successes and failures. Effective followers are individuals who are considered to be enthusiastic, intelligent, ambitious, and self-reliant.

     On the other hand, a follower is a person who follows the instruction of a leader.  Followership is the willingness to accept the established and communicated vision of a leader by the citizens of a state.  A call to leadership is a call to serve, while a follower must do the bidding of his leader to the extent that it does not run ‘ultra-vires’ (acting beyond the limit of power) the constitution.

Followership is defined as the act or instance of accepting the guidance and command of someone who leads or guides. In the Civil Air Patrol, a younger, inexperienced cadet is a prime example of a follower. Having little knowledge about the program, the cadet is unable to neither make important decisions affecting a group of people nor teach others by example. The cadet is only able to accept the lessons and duties imposed upon him by his ordinates. The follower will imitate the leader’s behavior and actions, gaining self-discipline, motivation, ideas, and responsibility from those

 

EVALUATION

  1. Who  is a follower?
  2. What are the expected qualities of a follower?

 

GENERAL EVALUATION

  1. Differentiate between a leader and leadership.
  2. What is different between a follower and followership?
  3. List and explain six qualities expected of a leader and follower.
  4. Outline five consequences of bad leadership followership to the society.
  5. Explain the relationships between leadership and followership

              WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

  1.  …… is the willingness to accept the established and communicated vision of a leader by the citizens of a state. (a) Leader (b) Follower (c) Followership (d) Leadership
  2. A follower is expected to be  (a) recalcitrant (b) indolent (c) trustworthy (d) disrespectful
  3. Leadership position should be seen as a call to   (a) serve (b) embezzle (c) enjoy (d) oppress
  4. A leader should lead by  (a) force (b) coercion (c) example (d) sight
  5. In leadership and followership, running ‘ultra-vires’ means  (a) being proud (b) to run beyond the constitution (c) to disrespect leadership (d) cooperative attitudes between leadership and followership

        WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT (ESSAY TEST)

  1. What are the qualities of a leader?
  2. Cite some example of the kind of relationships that should be between leadership and followership.

READING ASSIGNMENT: Read and revise your e-learning notes in preparation for terminal examination.

 PRE-READING ASSIGNMENT: Read and revise your e-learning notes in preparation for terminal examination.

I hope the above has helped? Please feel free to ask questions as regards the Government approved SS3 Government Second Term lesson note for 2023 if you have any and I will be glad to assist.

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